In this study, using soil brick with combined effective microorganisms and emergent plants was identified which it can increase the effect of conservation and improvement of water. Lab-test was consist of four kind of reactors and each of reactors were A(rawwater), B(soil brick), C(emergent plant) and D(soil brick+emergent plant). Iris pseudoacorus, Phargmites australis, Typha angustifolia and Zizania latifolia were used for emergent plant. Evaluation of application on various environment were performed on agricultural waterway and pond. The pH measurement test of soil brick was performed due to evaluate whether a strong alkaline water flows out of the soil brick. Result of lab-test, removal efficiency of D was better than removal efficiency of A presenting 20.9%, 27.9% 21.5%, 33.8% and 58.4% for CODCr, BOD5, TN, TP and TSS respectively. Removal efficiency of soil brick on agricultural waterway was revealed to be 49.5%, 45.0%, 43.7%, 37.3% and 28.6% for CODCr, BOD5, TN, TP and TSS respectively. And removal efficiency of soil brick on the pond was revealed to be 12.7%, 10.5%, 9.32%, 10.4% and 36.3% for CODCr, BOD5, TN, TP and TSS respectively. Result of pH measurement test of soil brick was neutral which was about 6 to 8.
The TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) has been used to determine the water quality target. LDC (Load Duration Curve) based on hydrology has been used to support water quality assessments and development of TMDL. Also FDC (Flow Duration Curve) analysis can be used as a general indicator of hydrologic condition. The LDC is developed by multiplying FDC with the numeric water quality target of the factor for the pollutant of concern. Therefore, this study was to create LDC using the stream flow data and numeric water quality target of BOD and T-P in order to evaluate the pollutant load characterization by flow conditions in Heukcheon stream. When it is to be a high-flows condition, BOD and T-P are necessary to manage. BOD and T-P did not satisfy the numeric water quality target for both seasons (spring and summer). In order to meet the numeric water quality target in Heukcheon stream, management of non point source pollutant is much more important than that of point source pollutant control.
Distribution basins are used widely in the water treatment process. Uniform distribution at the distribution basin is an important because it affect precipitation efficiency of sedimentation basin. Generally distribution basin has a free surface water and is consisted of a weir. Study result, when inflow of distribution basin is less, amount of overflow is much at the nearest weir from the inlet. But when inflow is much, amount of overflow is much at the far weir from the inlet. The difference of distribution amount at the pipe is affected by the curvature and length of the pipe. The magnitude of the effect is determined by the relative energy loss and the flow state of the distribution basin. Optimization of the response surface method for minimizing an amount of deviation of the distribution is a very useful technique to determine the optimal ratio of the valve opening.
The influencing factors to remove phosphate were evaluated by converter slag (CS). Experiments were performed by batch tests using different CS sizes and column test. Solutions were prepared at the different pH and concentrations. The maximum removal efficiency was obtained over 98% with the finest particle size, CSa within 2 hours in batch tests. The removal efficiency was increased in the order of decreasing size with same amount of CS for any pH of solutions. The adsorption data were well fitted to Freundlich isotherm. From the column experiment, the specific factors were revealed that the breakthrough removal capacity (BRC) xb/mcs, was decreased by increasing the influent concentration. The breakthrough time, tb was lasted shorter as increasing the influent concentration. The pH drop simultaneously led to lower BRC drop during the experimental hours. The relation between the breakthrough time and the BRC to influent concentration was shown in the logarithmic decrease. Results suggested that the large surface area of CS possessed a great potential for adsorptive phosphate removal. Consequently particle size and initial concentration played the major influencing factors in phosphate removal by converter slag.
Although disinfection in drinking water treatment plants provides a safer water supply by inactivating pathogenic microorganisms, harmful disinfection by-products may be formed. In this study, the disinfectant, chlorine, was produced on-site from the electrolysis of salt (NaCl), and the by-products of the disinfection process, bromate and chlorate, were analyzed. The provisional guideline levels for bromate and chlorate in drinking water are 10 μg/L and 700 μg/L, in Korea, respectively. Bromide salt was detected at concentrations ranging from 6.0 ~ 622 mg/kg. Bromate and chlorate were detected at concentrations ranging from non-detect (ND) ~ 45.3mg/L and 40.5 ~ 1,202 mg/L, respectively. When comparing the bromide concentration in the salt to the bromate concentration in the chlorine produced by salt electrolysis, the correlation of bromide to bromate concentration was 0.870 (active chlorine concentration from on-site production: 0.6–0.8%, n=40). The correlation of bromate concentration in the chlorine produced to that in the treated water was 0.866.
Evaluation and comparison for the performance on the contracting-out became possible after the introduction of the performance indicators(PIs) in 2012 in Korea, And local governments and private companies are utilizing them as evaluation data to enhance the performance of the contracting-out. Several revisions on performance indicator were carried out by expert group on contents validity of PIs, But the review of the composition validity of PIs was not sufficient. In this study, the applicability, distinction ability and composition validity of PIs is evaluated by statistical method. From the results, Improvement of indicator is required in order to increase the interrelationship among indicators to enhance the compostion validity of indicators related with operation, sludge and water reuse