In this study, non-destructive technologies that can be applied to evaluate the integrity of valve materials, safety against internal pressure caused by corrosion, and the blocking function of large-diameter water valves during operation without requiring specimen collection or manpower entering the inside of the valve were tested to assess the reliability of the technologies and their suitability for field application. The results showed that the condition of the graphite structure inside the valve body can be evaluated directly through the optical microscope in the field without specimen collection for large-diameter water butterfly valves, and the depth of corrosion inside the valve body can be determined by array ultrasound and the tensile strength can be measured by instrumented indentation test. The reliability of each of these non-destructive techniques is high, and they can be widely used to evaluate the condition of steel or cast iron pipes that are significantly smaller in thickness than valves. Evaluation of blocking function of the valves with mixed gas showed that it can be detected even when a very low flow rate of mixed gas passes through the disk along with the water flow. Finally, as a result of evaluating the field applicability of non-destructive technologies for three old butterfly valves installed in the US industrial water pipeline, it was found that it is possible to check the material and determine the suitability of large-diameter water valves without taking samples, and to determine the corrosion state and mechanical strength. In addition, it was possible to evaluate safety through the measurement results, and it is judged that the evaluation of the blocking function using mixed gas will help strengthen preventive response in the event of an accident.
In this study, the physical properties and fracture characteristics according to the tensile load are evaluated on the materials of the polymeric filler and carbon fiber-based composite sleeve technique. The polymeric filler and the composite sleeve technique are applied to areas where the pipe body thickness is reduced due to corrosion in large-diameter water pipes. First, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler was 161.48~240.43 kgf/cm2, and the tensile strength of the polyurea polymeric filler was relatively higher than that of the epoxy. However, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler is relatively very low compared to ductile cast iron pipes(4,300 kgf/cm2<) or steel pipes(4,100 kgf/cm2). Second, the tensile strength of glass fiber, which is mainly used in composite sleeves, is 3,887.0 kgf/cm2, and that of carbon fiber is up to 5,922.5 kgf/cm2. The tensile strengths of glass and carbon fiber are higher than ductile cast iron pipe or steel pipe. Third, when reinforcing the hemispherical simulated corrosion shape of the ductile cast iron pipe and the steel pipe with a polymeric filler, there was an effect of increasing the ultimate tensile load by 1.04 to 1.06 times, but the ultimate load was 37.7 to 53.7% compared to the ductile cast iron or steel specimen without corrosion damage. It was found that the effect on the reinforcement of the corrosion damaged part was insignificant. Fourth, the composite sleeve using carbon fiber showed an ultimate load of 1.10(0.61T, 1,821.0 kgf) and 1.02(0.60T, 2,290.7 kgf) times higher than the ductile cast iron pipe(1,657.83 kgf) and steel pipe(2,236.8 kgf), respectively. When using a composite sleeve such as fiber, the corrosion damage part of large-diameter water pipes can be reinforced with same level as the original pipe, and the supply stability can be secured through accident prevention.
In this study, as the proportion of aged pipelines increases rapidly, in the event of an accident caused by corrosion and structural deterioration of metal pipes, appropriate overlay welding is applied in the field to partially repair it. The size of the base steel plate and the selection of a stable welding method were evaluated, and possible problems caused by the overlay welding were identified, and improvement measures were proposed. For the test, a new steel pipe coated with epoxy lining on the inner surface and polyethylene on the outer surface was subjected to a tensile test by processing the repaired specimen through overlay welding with a steel plate after artificial cracking, and structural safety was evaluated after repair. Furthermore, the influences of the size of the throat and the size of the steel plate were analyzed. As a result of the tensile test by dividing the repaired steel plate overlay into a constraint and non-constraint conditions, the tensile load was concentrated in the welded part and damage occurred in the welded part. It was found that the maximum load leading to breakage increases as the size of the welding throat increases. In addition, it was found that the resistance to load increased slightly as the size of the overlaid steel plate increased, but the effect was not significant, confirming the need for repair in consideration of the site conditions. As a result of evaluating the damage to the coating material on the back side of the welding, it was confirmed that the coating material on the opposite side of the welding burned black(epoxy) or was greatly deformed by heat(polyethylene). Therefore, it is necessary to secure structural stability through repainting, etc. in order to prevent damage to the coating material on the opposite side during overlay welding.
In this study, we collect water control valves that have had accidents due to existing cracks, etc. are collected, and propose investigation items for strengthening the valve structural safety evaluation through a series of analyzes from valve specifications to physicochemical properties are proposed. The results of this study are as follows. First, there was a large variation in the thickness of the body or flange of the valves to be investigated, which is considered to be very important factor, because it may affect the safety of the valve body against internal pressure and the flange connected with the bolt nut. Second, 60% of the valves under investigation had many voids in the valve body and flange, etc. and the decrease in thickness due to corrosion was relatively large on the inner surface in contact with water rather than the outer surface. It is judged that the investigation of depth included voids is very important factor. Third, all valves to be investigated are made of gray cast iron foam, and therefore it is judged that there is no major problem in chemical composition. It is judged that the chemical composition should be investigated. Fourth, as a physical investigation item, the analysis of metal morphology structure seems to be a very important factor for nodular cast iron from rather than a gray cast iron foam water valve with a flake structure. As it was found to be 46.7~68.8% of the standard recommended by KS, it could have a direct effect on damage such as cracks, and therefore it is judged that the evaluation of tensile strength is very important in evaluating the safety of the valve.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the corrosion damage of large diameter metallic pipes buried in reclaimed land due to the corrosion effect by soil, and to propose a method of installing metal pipes in the reclaimed land. The results are as follow. First, the soil of the reclaimed land was gray clay, the soil specific resistance indicating soil corrosiveness was at least 120 Ω-cm, the pH was weakly acidic(5.04 to 5.60), the redox potential was at least 62 mV, the moisture content was at most 48.8%, and chlorine ions and sulfate ions were up to 4,706.1 mg/kg and 420 mg/kg. Therefore, the overall soil corrosivity score was up to 19, and the external corrosion effect seems to be very large. Second, the condition of straight part of pipes was in good condition, but most of KP joints were affected by corrosion at a severe level. The reason for this seems to be that KP joints accelerated corrosion due to stress and crevice corrosion in addition to galvanic corrosion in the same environment. Third, as a result of evaluating correlations of each item that affects the corrosion on the external part, the lower the soil resistivity and redox potential, the greater the effect on the KP joints corrosion, and the moisture content, chloride ion, and sulfate ion, the higher the value, the greater the effect on the corrosion of KP joints. In addition, among soil corrosion items, the coefficient of determination of soil resistivity with corrosion of KP joints was the highest with 0.6439~0.7672. Fourth, when installing metal pipes or other accessories because the soil of the reclaimed land is highly corrosive, it is necessary to apply a corrosion preventive method to extend the life of pipes and prevent leakage accidents caused by corrosion damage to the joint.
In this study, air scouring cleaning was selected and applied among 5 small blocks (S1~S5) in domestic S cities to analyze the cleaning effect of particles causing discoloration. In order to identify the cleaning effect, 10 locations were selected as water quality investigation point, such as the stagnant or water mains ends. Removal of solids, variation of particle components, weight and concentration were analyzed. And the level of the cleanness of the surface inside water mains using endoscope was investigated. As a result of analysis, the solids discharged after cleaning were mainly sand and gravel, pieces related to pipe materials, and corrosion products. As a result of analyzing the concentrated particles of the filter before and after cleaning, it was found that the change in discoloration on the filter was large. In addition, as a result of comparing the weight and the concentration of the particles, it was found that the particles causing discoloration were significantly removed after cleaning. From the results of the endoscopy, it was confirmed that most of the precipitated and accumulated dark yellow discoloration matters inside water mains were removed through cleaning. Therefore, it seems that the particles causing discoloration in water decreased after cleaning. Therefore, it is expected that, if properly cleaning was applied, matters that cause discoloration can be removed from the water mains, and customer's complaints can also be reduced through water quality improvement.
This study attempts to draw factors for an analysis of the operation effect of a rechlorination facility and autodrain equipment for residual chlorine equalization by installing and operating a rechlorination facility and autodrain equipment in P City and analyzing the practical evaluation method and operation effect. For this purpose, this study selected three indicators for an analysis of the effectiveness of residual chlorine equalization and conducted a comparative analysis before and after the implementation of the residual chlorine equalization. As a result of estimation, ① the reduction of the residual chlorine concentration range from a water treatment plant to the pipe end was 16.0%; ② the total reduction of chlorination input was 18.0%; and ③ the reduction of the generation of disinfection by-products was 19.5%. In addition, this achieved enough residual chlorine equalization in the supply process and shows that it could successfully achieve the economic feasibility of investment in equipment and the reduction of the generation of disinfection by-products. Like this, it is judged that the three indicators suggested in this study will be used sufficiently as indicators of an analysis of the effectiveness of residual chlorine equalization according to the operations of the rechlorination facility and autodrain equipment.
Deposits discharged through the cleaning mainly were cement mortar, bitumen paintings and rust pieces, and fragments of perforation, stones and gravels. Deposits were more removed through swabbing pig cleaning rather than air scouring cleaning on the whole. However, air scouring cleaning were not influenced by the constraint conditions such as a change in the diameter or the presence of the valve in water mains compare to swabbing pig cleaning. So, it was thought that air scouring cleaning might be more favorable to water distribution network cleaning in the future. After the cleaning, water quality including residual chlorine and turbidity also was improved because of the removal of a significant amount of the deposits. Therefore, if the cleaning is continuously and regularly implemented in water mains, it is expected that it will help to recover the reliability and to preserve the health of water quality.
Tuberculation and slime accumulated in water mains play an important role in modifying water quality of drinking water. Therefore, in this study, it was investigated that what materials were accumulated, and what components were included in the tuberculation and slime of water mains. The Various tuberculation and slime sample were collected from the 12 water mains to analyze their physical and chemical properties and crystal structure. As a analysis method, VSS(Volatile suspended solid), SEM(scanning electron microscope), EDS(Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscope), ICP(Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) and XRD(X-Ray Diffractomete) were used. The results of analysis on the samples, the representative materials were verified such as iron corrosion products, the fine sand particles generated during backwash, fine particles of activated carbon, aluminum used in coagulation process, and manganese included in raw water.
The flushing is important to maintain good water quality in water main. It is a technique of using water velocity to remove sediments in water distribution system. The variety of water quality problems can occur in a distribution system, so too can a variety of benefits be gained by system flushing. In order to effectively perform the flushing, the contaminants to be removed to set up and it can be solved, it is necessary to ensure the proper flow rate. In this study, the removal of contaminants present in the inner water pipe attached loose deposits such as fine particles of granular activated carbon, sand and iron corrosion product sought to derive flow rates. Thus, the constant observation of using pilot plant scale water distribution plant for the movement of floating characteristics of particles were assessed.
In this study, the spatio-temporal variations and trends of frost events (total frost days, first/last frost date) in South Korea were investigated using RegCM4.0 simulation data based on two RCP(4.5, 8.5) scenarios. To evaluate the performance of RegCM4.0 for the current (1981-2010) frost events, the daily minimum temperature of 49 observation sites in South Korea were used. Generally, the RegCM4.0 reasonably simulated the spatial characteristics of frost events, but the first (last) frost date was simulated by about 6.6 (3.3) days earlier (later) than that of the observation. As the results, the simulated number of the total frost days was 10.8 days greater than that of the observation. In the mid- 21st century(2021-2050), the first(last) frost date was projected to be delayed (bring forwarded) by about 7.9(3.1) days in RCP4.5 and about 9.6(2.3) days in RCP8.5, respectively. And the first(last) frost date in the late 21st century(2071-2100) is projected to be delayed (bring forwarded) by about 14.5(15.0) days in RCP4.5 and about 22.2(23.5) days in RCP8.5, comparing to the current climate. These changes could induce a significant decrease of the number of total frost days by about 26.5(47.7) days in the late 21st century under RCP4.5(RCP8.5). And the interannual variability of frost events under RCP4.5(RCP8.5) was projected to be relatively higher(smaller) in the mid-21st century than in the late 21st. The results indicated that the extreme frost events is expected to increase in the mid-21st century under RCP4.5, while in the late 21st century under RCP8.5, comparing to the current climate.
수돗물의 공급과정에서 발생되는 상수관망의 누수는 소중한 수자원의 손실, 공급에너지의 추가적인 소요 등 사회경제적인 손실을 초래한다. 본 연구에서는 관로 상에 설치되어 실시간으로 계측되는 유량자료를 이용하여 누수를 감시하는 모형을 적응 칼만필터 기법을 이용하여 제시하였다. 제안된 누수감시 알고리즘에서는 수돗물 사용량의 시간적 변화와 요일적 변동을 고려함으로써 예측의 신뢰도를 향상시키는 방안을 제시하였다. 또한 기존의 칼만필터 기법에 혁신과정을 추가하여 잡음의 공분산에 대한 자동보정을 통하여 예측의 정확도를 개선하였다. 개발된 모형은 사인형태의 가상 유량자료에 대한 모의실험을 통하여 적응 칼만필터 기법의 예측 정확도를 기존의 칼만필터 기법과 비교하였으며, JE시의 2개 소블록 유량자료에 대한 현장 적용성 평가를 실시하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 관로의 파열에 의한 누수 및 비정상적인 용수사용량에 대한 감시를 통하여 상수관망의 효율적인 운영관리에 적용될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
본 연구에서는 상수관망에서 개별적으로 노후도가 심하여 개량이 필요한 구간을 보다 정확하게 구분하기 위해 새로운 개별관로 정의 방법이 개발되었다. 적절한 관로 최소구성성분 길이를 결정하기 위하여 여러 가지 관로 최소구성성분 길이에 대한 평균 누적파손횟수경사선의 분산값을 비교하여 가장 큰 분산값을 나타내는 관로 최소구성성분 길이인 4 m 를 연구대상 지역의 상수관망에 적용하였으며 관로 ID는 39개로 구분되어졌다. 관로의 경제적 최적교체 시기는 한계파손율과