PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyze the flexural strength characteristics of cement mortar mixtures simultaneously incorporated with graphene oxide (GO) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers, and to understand the composite effect of those on enhancing resistance against the initiation and progression of micro-cracks, as well as the control of macro-cracks in flexural behavior.
METHODS : Cement mortar(w/c=0.5) specimens for flexural strength test, mixing 6 mm and 12 mm PVA fibers at 1% and 2% volume ratios, were fabricated. Additionally, specimens incorporating GO at a cement weight ratio of 0.05% were prepared for each mixture to analyze the effect of GO. Therefore total eight types of mixture were prepared. The fabricated specimens were subjected to flexural strength tests after curing in waterbath for 7 and 28 days. Concurrently, digital images for analyzing deformation in accordance with loading history were obtained at a rate of 20 Hz using the DIC technique. Through displacement and strain calculation via DIC, the flexural behavior characteristics of the mixtures combined with GO and PVA fibers were precisely analyzed. Furthermore, the composite effect on flexural behavior characteristics when GO and PVA fibers are incorporated was discussed.
RESULTS : For the PVA fiber-reinforced cement mortar mixture, the incorporation of 0.05% GO increased the crack initiation load by up to 23%, and the maximum resistive load after cracking by up to 24%. Moreover, introducing GO into the PVA fiber-reinforced mixture increased the flexural strain just before cracking by approximately 30 to 50%, while the maximum resistive load after cracking exhibited similar strain levels with or without GO incorporation. Therefore, under flexural behavior, the integration of GO might delay crack initiation by increasing the strain concurrent with the rise in flexural stress before crack occurrence. It also seems to contribute to reducing crack expansion by synergistically interacting with PVA fibers after crack occurrence.
CONCLUSIONS : It was experimentally examined that the flexural strength of PVA fiber reinforced cement mortar is improved by incorporating GO. Moreover, GO enhances resistance of crack occurrance and reduces crack propagation in combination with PVA fibers. This study suggests that simultaneous incorporation of GO and PVA fibers can synergistically improve the performance of cement composites.
The global demand for raw lithium materials is rapidly increasing, accompanied by the demand for lithiumion batteries for next-generation mobility. The batch-type method, which selectively separates and concentrates lithium from seawater rich in reserves, could be an alternative to mining, which is limited owing to low extraction rates. Therefore, research on selectively separating and concentrating lithium using an electrodialysis technique, which is reported to have a recovery rate 100 times faster than the conventional methods, is actively being conducted. In this study, a lithium ion selective membrane is prepared using lithium lanthanum titanate, an oxide-based solid electrolyte material, to extract lithium from seawater, and a large-area membrane manufacturing process is conducted to extract a large amount of lithium per unit time. Through the developed manufacturing process, a large-area membrane with a diameter of approximately 20 mm and relative density of 96% or more is manufactured. The lithium extraction behavior from seawater is predicted by measuring the ionic conductivity of the membrane through electrochemical analysis.
In this paper, the pull-out characteristics of composite Z-pins with various groove shapes was investigated. The groove shape of composite Z-pins was made by applying temperature and pressure to the top and bottom of laminated composites inside the autoclave. Then, the dumbbell type of pull-out test specimen was made by applying adhesive bond. Six types of pull-out test specimens were fabricated by changing the groove length. Pull-out load and displacement sere observed for those specimens with different groove ratio. The results show that the maximum pull-out load of the grooved pin with grooved ratio 0.4 was increased up to 30.6% by comparing the plain pin. The grooved pin has a high pull-out resistance even after the fracture of the interface.
In this study, carbon fiber Z-pins were fabricated by applying the different manufacturing process, and pull out test was performed for the dumbbell type of test specimens. Carbon fiber Z pins with smooth surface(type I) and stepped surface(type II, type III) were fabricated by using autoclave. Carbon fiber Z-pins with stepped surface were manufacturing method, that is, mold forming and machining process. The experimantal results show that carbon fiber Z pins have superior pull-out characteristics to carbon steel Z-pins. Pull-out load and pull-out toughness of carbon fiber Z pins with stepped surface are larger than those of carbon fiber Z-pins with smooth surface. Pull-out load and pull out toughness of mold f ormed Z-pin are 31% and 218% larger than those of smooth surfaced Z-pins, respectively.
Rolling contact fatigue(RCF) is a major cause of failure that appears in components of rolling contacts. In the recent years, the fatigue propagation and failure have been an important issue in respect of the safe operation and to reduce the noise and vibration of the rolling contact components. The water-contaminated lubrication is known to be one of the significant factors that reduces the lifetime of the rolling contact components. Thus, in this study, the effect of water-contaminated lubrication environment on the rolling contact fatigue was investigated. Bearing life testing was performed in two different lubrication conditions (i.e. normal lubrication environment and water-contaminated lubrication environment). The effect of the debirs on the rolling contact fatigue could be eliminated by establishing the debris filter system. Microscopic features of the rolling contact surfaces were examined using energy dispersive spectrometry and non-contact 3D measurement system. In the case of the water-contaminated lubrication, the increase of surface roughness values up to 17.6% was observed. The oxidation state and pattern of the rolling contact surfaces were very different depending on the lubrication environment. It was also found that the bearing rating life, , was decreased significantly in the watercontaminated lubrication condition. The amount of reduction was about 49.7%.
In this study, determination methods of monitoring location in water distribution system were suggested and applied to real test bed. Small block of Gwangtan water distribution system is consisted of 582 pipes, 564 junctions, 1 reservoir, and 1 pump station. Small block of Ho Chi Minh water distribution system is consisted of 162 pipes, 148 junctions, and 1 reservoir. Two small block water distribution systems were analyzed by pressure contribution analysis method to determine the optimum monitoring locations. The pressure change was estimated at each junctions by the additional demand at a junction. From the results, the optimum monitoring location can be determined by rank of pressure contribution index at each junctions due to demand change at a junction.
Many researches on the typology of 'Maru'(Wooden deck) in Korean traditional houses have mainly focused on the high-class houses in the central region of Korea. They were mainly concerned on defining Maru's typology by social status of the owner, based on the researches regarding its physical and spatial properties. Maru in the high-class traditional houses has been served as an essential architectural feature showing the social status of owners as well as adapting in the region of humid and hot summer. This research investigated the typology of Maru's placement in traditional single houses of four Kan in Chonnam province, which shows many differences in its placement according to the regions. Research results show that the typology of Maru's placement and openness is different with the location of houses within the region. This difference affects on the circulation of movement, which eventually affects on the pattern of space use. The difference is also very likely to be affected by the natural environment of geography and climate of the region.
상수관망의 운영에 있어서 핵심적인 사항 중의 하나는 관망의 압력균등화이다. 관망의 압력균등화는 시간과 공간적으로 이루어져야 하며 이를 위한 대표적인 방법은 가압장을 설치하는 것이다. 가압장은 관말단에 잔류수압(Residual Pressure Head)이 부족할 것으로 예상될 경우 용수에 추가적인 에너지를 가하여 원활한 용수공급을 가능하게 하는 시설이다. 그러나 가압장에는 펌프를 사용하기 때문에 지속적인 운영비용이 발생하고 기계적인 고장에 취약한 단점을 가지고 있다. 이와 같은 가압장의 단점을 보완하기 위하여 배수관망내에 탱크(In-line Tank)를 설치하는 것이 대안이 될 수 있다. 탱크의 초기투자 비용은 가압장보다 크지만 유지비용이 적고, 고장에 따른 용수공급 중단이 될 가능성이 낮다. 또한, 관파괴에 의한 단수발생시 탱크 인접지역에 비상용수원으로 활용될 수 있다. 그러나 시설비나 부지 문제로 인하여 배수관망에 많은 수의 탱크를 설치하기는 어렵다. 이에 본 연구에서는 배수관망내 필요한 탱크의 개수에 따라 적정배치를 결정할 수 있는 방법론을 제시하였다. 즉, 예산이나 설치부지 등의 제한으로 설치가능한 탱크의 수가 결정되면 이를 최적으로 배치할 수 있는 방법론을 의미한다. 이를 위한 목적함수로 시공간적 관망내 압력 균등지표(Temporal and Spatial Pressure Evenness Index, TSPEI)를 제시하였다. TSPEI 산정은, 먼저 24시간의 Extended Period Simulation을 통하여 절점별로 압력의 일변동(일최대압력-일최소압력)을 산정하고, 두번째로 모든 절점의 압력 일변동을 합산하여 구한다. 이때 가능한 탱크 조합중 TSPEI가 가장 작은 조합이 최적조합이 된다. 제안된 방법을 샘플관망(Mays' network)을 대상으로 적용성을 검증하였다. 그 결과 설치 가능한 탱크의 수를 2개, 3개, 4개로 가정하여 각각의 경우에 대해 최적탱크조합을 산정하였으며, 각각의 탱크 조합에서 일관된 경향이 나타남을 확인하였다.