In this study, the models with types A, B and C of the commercial electric kickboard suspensions were modeled and the structural analyses were carried out. Types A and C have the deformations less than type B. The coil spring can reduce the deformation by installing the suspension. In types A and C, the forces applied to the bolt became same, but more deformation occurred in type C. This is the difference due to whether or not there is a fixed part. Type A was fixed and type C not. This fixation indicates that the bolt has been fully tightened to the end. Therefore, the use of products thatarefully contacted to the end by tightening with bolts can reduce the deformation greatly. Based on the data obtained from this study, it is assumed that the more efficient and stable product will be designed if the suspension absorber of the suspension is designed. Without the test on the durability of electric kickboard suspension, the durability can be seen as the deformation and stress are investigated through the structural analysis.
The longest process in the injection molding process is the cooling process of the molded product. Therefore, shortening the cooling time is key to reducing the injection molding cycle time. For fast cooling time, the production of conformal cooling channels using metal 3D printing instead of the conventional linear cooling channels is continuously increasing. In this study, the cooling effect of the conventional linear cooling channel application and the conformal cooling channel application using metal 3D printing was compared in the design of the back cover molding mold of the circulator that has been widely used recently. The comparison of the cooling effect was based on the mold temperature and the molded product temperature for a certain period of time after completion of molding. It was confirmed that the time required to eject from the mold with the conformal cooling channel to the ejecting temperature of the molded product was reduced by 28.7%, and the maximum temperature of the mold was also reduced by 40%.
The role of QR code robots in smart logistics is great. Cognitive robots, such as logistics robots, were mostly used to adjust routes and search for peripheral sensors, cameras, and recognition signs attached to walls. However, recently, the ease of making QR codes and the convenience of producing and attaching a lot of information within QR codes have been raised, and many of these reasons have made QR codes recognizable as visions and others. In addition, there have been cases in developed countries and Korea that control several of these robots at the same time and operate logistics factories smartly. This representative case is the KIVA robot in Amazon. KIVA robots are only operated inside Amazon, but information about them is not exposed to the outside world, so a variety of similar robots are developed and operated in several places around the world. They are applied in various fields such as education, medical, silver, military, parking, construction, marine, and agriculture, creating a variety of application robots. In this work, we are developing a robot that can recognize its current position, move and control in the directed direction through two-dimensional QR codes with the same horizontal and vertical sides, and the error is to create a QR code robot with accuracy to reach within 3mm. This paper focuses on the moving control model during the development of QR code-aware indoor mobility robots.
In this paper, the performance characteristics of a cryogenic refrigeration system used in fields such as HMR(Home Meal Replacement) that require ultra-low temperatures of -50℃ using natural refrigerants according to the recent enforcement of the Atmosphere Environment Conservation Act were investigated. For this purpose, a 2-stage compression refrigeration system using R744(CO2) and a cascade refrigeration system using R747/R404A and R747/R717(NH3) were applied. The COP(coefficients of performance) of each refrigeration system were compared according to changes in evaporation and condensation temperature, subcooled and superheated degree. Although the coefficient of performance of the 2-stage compression refrigeration system using R744 was superior to that of the cascade refrigeration system, 2-stage refrigeration system was considered that various problems should be solved in practical terms. In addition, the COP of R744/R717 for various operating conditions showed similar results to R744/R404A, so the possibility of alternativeness could be confirmed in the cascade refrigeration system.
The deck area of a ship uses a variety of mechanisms and especially, for handling heavy materials, such as a Windlass, a Davit and a Derrick, a Winch for a deck, which controls by winding a drum with a wire or a rope is mostly used. Since the winch mainly uses a hydraulic system depending on driving characteristics, load-based power consumption is the most important device for this method. Therefore, an experimental study on the effect of energy reduction resulting from the flow rate variation was conducted by applying an inverter control to the deck winch, which is being used in a real training ship. As a result, when the surrounding environment and the driving condition were equal to each other, the maximum reduction and the minimum reduction in power consumption resulting from the flow rate variation excepting the maximum flow rate conditions was 51.8% and 16.1% respectively.
The purpose of this study was to develop an optimized hull-form of a coastal fishing vessel operating at high speed. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, HOTBOAT, that can perform an automatic hull-form optimal design of a coastal fishing vessel, was developed. HOTBOAT was composed of an objective function estimation algorithm and an optimization algorithm and a hull-form modification algorithm. In this study, the wave-making resistance was selected as an objective function and the potential-based panel method was applied to predict the objective function. SQP(sequential quadratic programming) method were adopted to predict the optimal direction and answer. Bell-shaped hull-form modification function method and NURBS(non-uniform rational B-spline) geometry modeling method were applied to modify the hull-form during the whole optimization process. HOTBOAT was applied to develop the optimal hull-form of a coastal fishing vessel with minimum wave resistance. The initial hull-form of the coastal fishing vessel was compared with the optimal hull-form. As a result of hull-form optimization, a coastal fishing vessel with a reduction of about 30% was developed compared with the initial hull-form and the displacement and the wetted surface area of the optimal hull-form was decreased to less than about 1% in comparison with the initial hull-form.
In this paper, we compare and analyze the injector defects of P-ENG and S-ENG with normal injectors by measuring current waveforms, voltage waveforms, exhaust gases and driving fuel economy. In the case of FTS failure, the S-ENG reduced the overall injection time by 3.7% and the main injection by 3.5% compared to the normal engines. In the case of AFS failure, the overall injection time increased by 45.7% and the main injection time increased by 24.1% compared to the normal engine. The rest data showed that fuel economy of S-ENG had 25.9% higher than P-ENG, NOX had 162.5% higher than that of P-ENG, and CO2 of S-ENG had 26.7% lower than P-ENG.
In this study, the cooling performance of the motor was analyzed according to the number and the length of the fins of the heat sink, and at the same time, the effect of forced convection on the cooling performance improvement by changing the air flow speed of the cooling fan was conducted. In order to find out the cooling performance in terms of turbulent kinetic energy, pressure, and temperature according to the number of heat sink fins, length of fins, and wind speed of the cooling fan, an aluminum heat sink was modeled according to the size of the motor. The heating value of the motor was calculated, and it was set to be the same under all analysis conditions. The turbulence model applied for numerical analysis in this study used the standard k-ε model. As a result, it was confirmed that the cooling effect of the heat sink increases as the air flow speed of the cooling fan, the number of fins, and the length of fins increase.
The new thermal management models of linear compressors have been recently reported. These models adopt the simplified transient flow effects to shorten the excessive analysis time. Among the unsteady flow effects of the linear compressor, the effect of the gap flow between the compressor housing and the body due to the body vibration on the heat transfer performance was studied in this paper. For this study, a numerical analysis for the unsteady axisymmetric flows was performed by using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The results show that the high-speed refrigerant flows occurred in the gap between the compressor housing and the body, which contribute to increasing the heat transfer from high temperature refrigerants in the housing to the outside air. In addition, as the gap decreases, the refrigerant flow rate through the gap increases and the heat transfer rate increases as well.
This study was performed to analyze the effect on driving performance by identifying the flow characteristics of the rear diffuser such as drag coefficient, lift coefficient, velocity vector, velocity streamlines, turbulence kinetic energy and vortex-core region according to the angle of the sedan rear diffuser and the shape of the divider. The angle of the diffuser was analyzed at 2° intervals from 0° to 18°, and the divider was analyzed by changing from one to five. The three-dimensional modeling was performed using CATIA V5 and the vehicle model was selected as a sedan car in the form of an LF Sonata. The CFD analysis was performed in order to identify the flow characteristics of rear diffuser using ANSYS CFX 14.5.7. For each model, the analysis was performed under each condition with speeds of 80km/h, 100km/h, 120km/h, 140km/h. The results of the flow analysis showed that the rear diffuser angle was the best result in driving stability at 6°. The results of the study on the number of dividers showed the best result value in driving stability when the rear diffuser angle was 6° and the divider was 3 and selected as the optimal shape.
In this study, the flow rate at the drone and the pressure around the drone were investigated by carrying out the flow analysis due to the wing shape of drone. At models 1, 2 and 3, the positions of areas with the maximum flow rate around the drone according to the shape of the wing were seen to be same at the rear wing of drone. Model 2 has the fastest flow rate, followed by model 1 and model 3. At the distribution of flow pressure by model around the drone according to the wing shape of drone, models 1, 2 and 3 had the same highest pressures at the center of drone. In comparison with the maximum pressures of models near the wing shape of the drone, the flow pressure at model 2 was higher compared with models 1 and 3. At the wing shape of the drone, model 2 is considered to carry the flow performance better than models 1 and 3. So, the result of this study is thought to be useful for designing the wing shape of the drone. Without the test of flow performance due to the shape of drone wing, the flow performance can be seen as the flow rate and pressure are investigated through the flow analysis.
In this work, the results obtained from the simulation of sedimentation of an elliptical cylinder in a viscous fluid are presented. The fluid flow velocity and pressure fields are evaluated by the famous lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). A smoothed profile method (SPM) is considered to enforce the no-slip boundary condition at the curved boundaries of the elliptical cylinder. The coupling between LBM LBM: Lattice Boltzmann Method and SPM SPM: Smoothed Profile Method is done by adding a hydrodynamic force term to the discretized version of the lattice Boltzmann equation. At first, the developed numerical code is validated by applying it to the unbounded laminar flow over an elliptical cylinder for different values of Reynolds number, Re. Later, simulations are carried out for sedimentation of an elliptical particle in a closed enclosure by considering different values for Re defined by terminal settling velocity of the cylinder. The robustness and accuracy of present simulation technique is assessed by comparing the particle trajectories and orientations obtained at different Re with the results from the existing literature. It is observed that, over a period of time, the particle attains steady state constant velocity and sediments horizontally when Re is low (Re=1.9) and moderate (Re=12.6). Whereas, an oscillating pattern for the sedimentation velocity is observed when Re is 32.9.
This study was developed to recognize the occurrence of 250[m] of experimental distance, rain and nighttime as an educational and training device without any safety accidents by applying algorithms to optical filters and noise filters to be used in all weather environments and closest to actual shooting training using IR Laser. There are live-fire shooting using live ammunition, screen shooting using beam project and screen, MILES using IR Laser and sensor, BB shooting using compressed gas and BB bullet, and painting shooting using CO2 gas and paint bullet. Among them, the actual shooting training is not efficient in terms of management and operation because it requires considerable risk factors and large costs in preparation for the highest efficiency. Therefore, training that replaces these problems is needed, and various alternative shooting training is being implemented. Therefore, research and development was conducted to solve these problems by using it as one of efficient shooting training and education systems. This study was conducted to develop high-performance and low-cost precision shooting training equipment to contribute to strengthening the defense of the Republic of Korea.
The role of QR code robots in smart logistics is great. Cognitive robots, such as logistics robots, were mostly used to adjust routes and search for peripheral sensors, cameras, and recognition signs attached to walls. However, recently, the ease of making QR codes and the convenience of producing and attaching a lot of information within QR codes have been raised, and many of these reasons have made QR codes recognizable as visions and others. In addition, there have been cases in developed countries and Korea that control several of these robots at the same time and operate logistics factories smartly. This representative case is the KIVA robot in Amazon. KIVA robots are only operated inside Amazon, but information about them is not exposed to the outside world, so a variety of similar robots are developed and operated in several places around the world. They are applied in various fields such as education, medical, silver, military, parking, construction, marine, and agriculture, creating a variety of application robots. In this work, we are developing a robot that can recognize its current position, move and control in the directed direction through two-dimensional QR codes with the same horizontal and vertical sides, and the error is to create a QR code robot with accuracy to reach within 3mm. This paper focuses on the driving operation techniques during the development of QR code-aware indoor mobility robots.
In this study, we compare and analyze stress and vertical deflectional displacement according to cross sectional shape changes of the beam using finite element analysis. The 11,000mm long horizontal beam showed stress differences depending on the cross-sectional variation, with stress differences of up to 200MPa and at least 149MPa. The deflection at the end of the beam also differed by up to 586 mm and at least 208mm. The weight change applied according to the cross-sectional shape of the steel horizontal beam was up to 235kgf, at least 144kgf, and showed the best stress and deflection characteristics in the cross sectional shape with a weight of 185kgf. This allowed us to improve structural safety through sectional shape optimization despite the weight increase.
The security accidents occurring in ships and at seas and ports became very serious, and in particular, the maritime terrorism and abduction by pirates have emerged at the international level as a problem. The international maritime organization (IMO), accordingly, entered into such forces as the SOLAS chapter and measures in order to reinforce the maritime security and the security for ships and port facilities in 2004. In this study, the JDS-S4 improved as an oriented speaker to reinforce the ship security by enabling the clear communication even at long distance was tested by using the conducted emission test(CE101) and a standard test of the US military standard (MIL-STD-461F). Also, the result of this study was shown to satisfy the standard.
In this paper, the pull-out characteristics of composite Z-pins with various groove shapes was investigated. The groove shape of composite Z-pins was made by applying temperature and pressure to the top and bottom of laminated composites inside the autoclave. Then, the dumbbell type of pull-out test specimen was made by applying adhesive bond. Six types of pull-out test specimens were fabricated by changing the groove length. Pull-out load and displacement sere observed for those specimens with different groove ratio. The results show that the maximum pull-out load of the grooved pin with grooved ratio 0.4 was increased up to 30.6% by comparing the plain pin. The grooved pin has a high pull-out resistance even after the fracture of the interface.
Thermal external cracks can be initiated at the parting line, which is the dividing line that splits the core and cavity halves of a molded exhaust manifold-turbine housing. The fatigue cracks are often resulted from hot-cold cycle loads called by thermal shock cycles, and are accompanied by large plastic strains. This paper investigated the effects of parting lines of the integrated exhaust manifold-turbine housing and compared the magnitude of plastic strains directly correlated to low cycle fatigue damages or cracks. The finite element results showed that the plastic strains at runner junctions including parting line was calculated by 0.68%, which is approximately 60% higher than that of the turbine housing considering no parting line. So, if the analysis target is less than 0.50 % of plastic strain amplitude, the fatigue damages or cracks could be expected by considering the parting lines in integrated exhaust manifold-turbocharger.
This study developed a flame-retardant fiber-reinforced composite material that satisfies the required regulations of railway vehicle interior parts for the purpose of reducing weight and simplifying the production process using SMC(sheet molding compounds) composite materials. It is essential to secure flame-retardant performance that minimizes flames and smoke for the safe evacuation of passengers in case of fire for interior parts of railway vehicles. In this study, the resin for SMC was developed by adding various flame retardant materials such as vinyl ester (halogen-based and phosphorus-based) and antimony trioxide, and chopped glass fibers were used as the reinforcing material. As a result of preparing specimens for phosphorus-based and halogen-based SMC materials, and comparing the flame retardant performance, the phosphorus-based SMC material had an oxygen index of 36.1, smoke density (1minute 30 seconds, 4minutes, 10minutes) of 1.7, 51.5, 195.1. It was measured with a toxicity index of 0.05 R and average heat for sustained burning of 4.5MJ/m, which satisfies all the flame retardant standards required for interior parts of railway vehicles, and it was found that most of the performance was better than that of halogen-based SMC.