Atomic Force Microscopes(AFM) is used to scan surfaces of a sample by measuring the interaction between atoms on the sample and the extremely sharp probe tip, which is produced by micromachining. AFM can be used as an inspection equipment for microelectronics industry and also requires a vibration-free environment to provide its proper functions. However, all of machine foundations including the wafer fab floor show the great amount of floor vibrations which can cause bad effects on the AFMs. This paper deals with the permissible floor vibration level for AFM at a given resolution.
There has been much research on the reliability and durability of the product life cycle using accelerated life test(ALT), accelerated stress test(AST) and accelerated stress audit(ASA) in the industry. Most of these systems use vibration induced by acceleration and deceleration. The device used for these kinds of research should have wide-band exciting frequency ranges to find the weak mode of the product. In this paper, platform of ALT based on the Stewart platform is controlled by using pneumatic actuators. Pneumatic actuators use motion and impact in this paper to cause wide-band exciting frequency. The change in frequency and pressure in the six cylinders is used to control the level of exciting vibration. Many control strategies are tested to improve the performance and one of the best control algorithms is suggested.
On cold start operation of a gasoline engine, a catalyst shows poor performance before it reaches activation temperature. Therefore, fast warmup of the catalyst is very crucial to reduce harmful emissions. In this study, an appropriate control strategy is investigated to increase exhaust gas temperature through changes of exhaust valve timing. An advance of exhaust valve timing decreases residual gas in cylinders due to decrease of valve overlap period. A control strategy of proper valve timing is suggested in order to achieve fast light-off of the catalyst and stable operation of the engine in a cold start and idle operation.
Regarding bridge structure maintenance and inspection, this study was conducted to replace the current system, in which bridge diagnostics specialists ride on inspection vehicles to perform visual inspections, with a robotic system equipped with a small camera. The new system would greatly reduce the effort required, enhance the safety of inspectors and provide more accurate and efficient data that are objective and quantitative. For this purpose, a new robotic inspection system was developed for field test which was performed on Ahyun overpass bridge. Field test results are described to prove the on-site applicability.
The paper reports on the prediction of turbulent heat transfer in flows between parallel plates with wall transpiration. The elliptic blending second moment closure for turbulent stresses and the GGDH model for turbulent heat fluxes are employed to predict the turbulent flow and heat transfer. The numerical results by the adopted models are directly compared to the DNS data and the measurements to assess the performance of the model predictions. The predictions show correctly the effect of deceleration and acceleration of the flow caused by the transpiration, and the anisotropy of the turbulence structure is augmented towards downstream by the fluid injection. The turbulence structure and heat transfer characteristics of transpired flows are well captured by the present turbulence and heat flux models.
This study is experimentally to analyze the heat transfer characteristics and photographic observation of bubble generation in saturated nucleate pool boiling. The photographs were taken of water boiling from heated nickel wires. The attempts is made to explain the different nucleate boiling of water. Some of the bubbles photographed were very close to the spherical shape, while others were close to the hemispherical. Also, a number of bubble had intermediate shapes that were called oblate bubbles. At least, heat transfer regions of three and possibly four were found to exist in nucleate boiling depended upon the mode of vapor generation. The vapor structure on the surface progressed through a sequence of first discrete bubbles, then vapor columns and vapor mushrooms, and finally vapor paths, as the surface temperature was increased. These individual vapor structures or combinations of them determine the mechanism of heat transfer in the four nucleate boiling regions.
본 연구는 신경망 알고리즘 및 반응표면법을 이용하여 부품의 최적화 설계 치수를 예측하고, 예측된 데이터의 신뢰성을 상호 검증하는 하는 데 있다. 부하가 변할 때, 부품의 치수를 변화시켜 가며 응력 및 변형량의 변화를 해석 데이터로 수집하여 반응표면법 및 신경망학습에 이용하였다. 이를 위해 임의의 조건에서 반응표면법으로 최적화 설계를 수행하고, 동일한 조건에서 신경망 알고리즘의 예측결과와 비교하였다. 그 결과 최대 3.0%의 치수 오차를 보이는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 검증을 위해 반대로 동일한 하중 및 치수 조건에서 유한요소해석을 통해 응력 및 처짐량을 구해 반응표면법 및 신경망학습의 결과를 비교하였으며, 이때 4.2%의 오차를 보였다. 이는 부품의 사양 변경 시 최적화 설계를 위해 반응표면법 및 신경망을 이용할 수 있으며 신뢰성이 있음을 알 수 있었다. 특히 신경망 학습을 통해 보다 효과적으로 최적화 설계가 가능함을 확인할 수 있었다.
HFC-134a is currently used as a refrigerant in automotive air conditioning system replacing the ozone depleting CFC-12 refrigerant. This paper was experimentally studied on the performance characteristics of an automotive air conditioning system with variations of charging refrigerant and compressor speed. An air conditioning system was composed of laminated type evaporator, parallel flow type condenser, vane rotary type compressor, externally equalized thermostatic expansion valve and receiver drier with specifications of Hyundai Sonata Ⅱ vehicle. And the automatic measuring system of air conditioner used KTE-1000BA developed by a KT ENG Co., Ltd.. of Korea. The optimum conditions which were tested as available parameters for better performance are indicated charging refrigerant 800 g and compressor speed 1700 rpm.
A new plate heat exchanger for water-refrigeration systems such as chillers has been developed. Before forming, two stainless steel plates are placed on each other and connected by tig welding. To outline of the plate did the seam welding, in order to form the flow pass on the plate inside the spot welding used. After the plates have been welded, the plates are hydraulically inflated using pressure by water or nitrogen.The plate is made of an SUS plate of 1m×2m in length and 1.2mm in thickness and are fixed in the top of the water tank.As a result of these, it is concluded that the plate exhibits good cooling performance and the average cooling capacity is approximately 2.9RT/plate and the average coefficient of performance (COP) of chiller system is 3.16.
This study describes a hydraulic fluid property compensator under the various operating conditions. Because hydraulic fluid systems have much more excellent features than other control systems, they are used in many fields. However, the characteristics of hydraulic fluid are changed due to various operating conditions. This phenomenon is called uncertainty. Especially, bulk modulus is considered as the most dominant parameter in this study. In order to overcome the uncertainty ∞ control technique will be used for this study. Designed controller using the ∞ control technique, is adopted for the hydraulic fluid multistage double acting oil pressure cylinder. Repetition operation test gives from 5 to 8 percent errors in moving position.
This paper is research of design and manufacture of a hybrid vehicle. Through seminar about vehicle design principle, an undergraduate students studied concept about vehicle design. Vehicle frame designed by CATIA V5. Also, composed finite element model of designed frame and executes static and dynamic analysis. A DMU model for a full vehicle was built using CATIA V5 and used to check interference between parts and to simulate assembly process. Also, in this study, applied split parallel type's hybrid system on manufacturing vehicles. Controller for system drive designed using Atmel company's AVR MCU. Through this project, the undergraduate students could acquire knowledge about vehicle development process.