Recently, due to the rapid increase in vehicle accidents, research on improving seat belts and restraint system are being actively on going to solve the problems in vehicle for passengers. The characteristics of lap belt load and pelvic displacement were simulated through MADYMO program using Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy to analyze the submarining by changing the collision speed and seat back angle by applying the forward collision pulse form accident scenario. As a result, the submarining occurred when the seat-back angle was 60° or higher at the collision speed of 50km/h or higher. Lastly, using the characteristics of the lap belt load and pelvic displacement when the anti-submarining belt (ANSB) system adapted, the pelvic displacement was reduced as well as submarining.
In this study, a mixed resin containing Bis-GMA was developed to produce a light-emitting sign using quantum dots. As a result of measuring the viscosity, color coordinates change, and luminance of the mixed resin, the following conclusions were obtained. The viscosity of the mixed resin decreased as the content of the diluent increased, and viscosity values ranged from 3,627 to 1,349cps showed as a result. The viscosity of the mixed resin decreased as the temperature increased, and the viscosity showed a value of 5,156 to 1,132cps. For the optical properties of InP/GaP/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots, the absolute quantum efficiency was 91% at 522nm and 90% at 618nm when the gallium was 0.01%. The luminance of the light-emitting sign using the resin mixed with quantum dots was showed 142.6cd/m2 in white and 104.2cd/m2 in the red region.
In this study, the AEB system evaluation simulation was conducted by applying a corrected TTC from 0s to 3s obtained by estimating the road-friction factor and slope applying two scenarios(CCRs and CCRm) that may occur in V2V situation using PC-CrashⓇ, a program used for traffic accident analysis. As a result of two scenarios : At 0.8 of road-friction factor and 0° slope which adapted default model of TTC had longer braking distance so that it crashed. At 0.2 of road-friction factor with corrected TTC slidingly crashed due to slope and braking condition. CCRs and CCRm scenario showed that the maximum slipped distance of the collision avoidance situation was 31.7m, 87.7m. And the collision speed was 35.7km/h at 50km/h and 66.1km/h at 80km/h.
The event recording devices such as EDR and DTG have recently been developed and installed in automobiles. The reliability of EDR application is being conducted in many previous studies, but with the development and development of autonomous vehicles, it is necessary to study the reliability of EDR and DTG application results for programs that can analyze autonomous driving. Therefore, in this study, the analysis was carried out in a way to secure the reliability of the application results of EDR and DTG of Carmaker, which can analyze the traffic accident analysis program PC-Crash and autonomous driving, and secure the reliability of the Carmaker program that applied EDR in Korea and abroad. As a result of the analysis, it was found that the speed error rate gradually increased from high speed to low speed, and the maximum error speed was less than 5 km/h through the average error rate for each speed. In the future, it is thought that it can be usefully used for analysis of traffic accidents in the event of autonomous vehicle accidents.
Solar energy is being constantly studied since it can reduce green house gas by adapting cooling and heating system of domestic architecture as a clean energy source. This study confirmed the reliability of experimental apparatus with temperature measurement of each components by developing cooling and heating system which is combined with artificial solar thermal energy using halogen lamp and refrigerator, examined the heat transfer characteristics according to room internal temperature and lamp distance with the materials of emissive plate (acrylic, copper and stainless). As a result of it, We found that the room internal temperature 18℃ was finer than 21℃ and 24℃ in case of heat transfer rate according to each components. Also, copper in the material change of emissive plate was showed finer heat transfer effects than stainless because of high thermal absorptivity when lamp distance was short.
This study is carried out to analyze the velocity distribution for each location and the uniformity index according to straight distance on exit side by changing the design factors of branch pipe connected to 180° circular mixing-tee using RSM(Reynolds Stress Model) turbulence model. As the results of the flow characteristics according to hydraulic diameter, the velocity profiles in the 90° sectional area are generally similar. In the 180° section, the maximum velocity point shows Y/D=0.7~0.8 after rapid increase of the flow velocity. In the result according to the distance away from inlet, the maximum velocity point in the 90° sectional area is located in outer side of the curved pipe as the distance away from inlet increases. In the 180° sectional area, the maximum velocity point is showed in Y/D=0.7~0.8 after the rapid increase of the flow velocity regardless of the variation of branched distance. In case of inclined angle, the maximum velocity point in the 90° sectional area is located in outer side of the curved pipe as the inclined angle increases. In the 180° sectional area, the maximum velocity point is observed in Y/D=0.8 regardless of the inclined angle. In addition, the uniformity index of flow velocity shows that it is stabilizing after approximately L/D=40 away from the end of the curved pipe regardless of the flow factors in the branch pipe.
In this study, velocity distribution characteristics by location and uniformity according to exit straight length in a 180° mixed pipes were numerically analyzed using RSM (Reynolds Stress Model) turbulent model by changing various flow parameters such as working fluids, inlet air velocity etc. As a result of it, the working fluids characteristics was highly indicated by the viscous force difference, the maximum velocity points according to main pipe’s inlet velocity were indicated when 90° sectional location was distributed at X/D=0.5~0.6 region and 180° sectional location was distributed at Y/D=0.5 region. And the flow characteristics according to branch pipe’s inlet velocity when 90° sectional location was distributed at X/D=0.4~0.6 region and 180° sectional location was distributed at Y/D=0.5 region. Based on the results that the most stable exit straight length in flow uniformity was indicated at L/D=25~30 region, 40D is suggested as the effective measurement distance in the straight pipe downstream curved pipe of mixed pipe.
According to the automobile industry has been developing day by day, traffic accidents are increasing and the rear-end collision is the second largest of the entire collision. Due to the high social cost caused by rear-end collision, several studies are in progress at home and abroad. Previous studies have shown that neck injury caused by rear-end collisions can be prevented by seat conditions. In this study, to find the condition that reduces neck injury, change of neck injury in rear-end collision is analyzed according to headrest height, seatback angle, and seatback torque using BioRID II dummy model and passenger behavior analysis program MADYMO. Therefore, it is expected that the condition of each variable to reduce the risk of injury to the neck can be applied to the seat design, which will reduce the injury and the social cost caused by the rear-end collision.
The heat transfer characteristics of forced convection according to the geometric shapes with four rectangular blocks in a horizontal PCB channel was analyzed numerically using SST (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model. As the boundary condition for CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis, the inlet temperature and air velocity were respectively 300 K and 3.84 m/s and the heat flux of the block surface was 358 W/㎡. The shape factors of block were width, height, spacing and channel entrance height. As the results, the heat transfer rate was decreased as the width ratio (x/h) was increased, while it was increased as the height ratio (h/x) is increased. Also as the block spacing ratio (s/x) was increased, the heat transfer effects was not significantly affected. And as the channel entrance height ratio (H/x) was increased, the heat transfer performance was decreased.
In this study, FLUENT v.16.1 was used to investigate the compressible flow generated by the supersonic jet spewed from a high pressure tube. As the boundary condition for CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis, the inlet temperature of air was constantly 300 K and the variation of JPR (Jet Pressure Ratio) were 5, 50, 100, 150 and the variation of tube diameter were 10, 20, 30 cm. As a result, it was confirmed that the effective range was increased as the JPR was higher, but it was confirmed that the effective range was lower than the JPR rise, and that the effective range was increased as the diameter was larger. Therefore, it is found that the tube diameter is more sensitive than the JPR among the influence factors of jet, and if the result of this study were reflected in the design of high pressure system, it will contribute to the design of the system for preventing the second accident.
This study was experimentally analyzed to search the swirl characteristics of helical intake port for the performance improvement in direct injection diesel engine. The intake port flow is important factor which has influence on the engine performance because the properties in the injected fuel depend on the combustion characteristics. In order to analyze the characteristics of swirl in the helical intake port of cylinder head, flow coefficient and swirl ratio were measured by an impulse swirl torque meter at position of 1.75 cylinder diameter for different valve lifts at the steady flow condition with intake port of the in-line and V type engine. Each intake ports were established swirl ratio 1.70, 2.13, 2.25, 2.38 and 2.43 by hand working. The results of steady flow test showed that flow coefficient and swirl intensity increased as valve lift increased, while the increase of swirl ratio according to the change of intake port geometry decreased mean flow coefficient and increased Gulf factor.
This study is experimentally to analyze the heat transfer characteristics and photographic observation of bubble generation in saturated nucleate pool boiling. The photographs were taken of water boiling from heated nickel wires. The attempts is made to explain the different nucleate boiling of water. Some of the bubbles photographed were very close to the spherical shape, while others were close to the hemispherical. Also, a number of bubble had intermediate shapes that were called oblate bubbles. At least, heat transfer regions of three and possibly four were found to exist in nucleate boiling depended upon the mode of vapor generation. The vapor structure on the surface progressed through a sequence of first discrete bubbles, then vapor columns and vapor mushrooms, and finally vapor paths, as the surface temperature was increased. These individual vapor structures or combinations of them determine the mechanism of heat transfer in the four nucleate boiling regions.
HFC-134a is currently used as a refrigerant in automotive air conditioning system replacing the ozone depleting CFC-12 refrigerant. This paper was experimentally studied on the performance characteristics of an automotive air conditioning system with variations of charging refrigerant and compressor speed. An air conditioning system was composed of laminated type evaporator, parallel flow type condenser, vane rotary type compressor, externally equalized thermostatic expansion valve and receiver drier with specifications of Hyundai Sonata Ⅱ vehicle. And the automatic measuring system of air conditioner used KTE-1000BA developed by a KT ENG Co., Ltd.. of Korea. The optimum conditions which were tested as available parameters for better performance are indicated charging refrigerant 800 g and compressor speed 1700 rpm.