The fuel efficiency was 16.77km/L on average for D-ENG and 12.97 km/L for B-ENG. The fuel efficiency of D-ENG was 22.66% higher than that of B-ENG. NOX had an average D-ENG of 191.75ppm and B-ENG of 104ppm. NOX of D-ENG occurred 145.76% more than B-ENG. The amount of CO2 generated was 154.25ppm for D-ENG and 199ppm for B-ENG. CO2 of D-ENG occurred 29.01% less than B-ENG. From this, it was found that the higher the fuel efficiency, the higher the emission of nitrogen oxide and the lower the emission of carbon dioxide decreased.
When the CP voltage is disconnected, the measured voltage on the ICCB side is measured to be 12V, and the voltage on the OBC side is measured to be 0V. When the PD signal was disconnected, the ICCB-side measured voltage was 0V and the OBC-side measured voltage was 4.5V. From this, disconnected position be found with the voltage value measured. When CP was disconnected for a short time, the PD voltage did not change to 1.5V, and when the PD was disconnected, the CP signal and PD signal changed to 9V, and if the CP and PD voltages were normal, the charge control could be performed normally.
가축의 체중은 사료 요구량과 영양 상태를 평가하는 데 필요한 주요 지표에 해당한다. 본 연구는 한우의 3-D 영상으로부터 몸통 체적을 산출한 후 체중을 추정하고자 시도되었다. 한우의 3-D 영상 획득에 640×480 픽셀의 해상도, 44fps의 프레임속도 및 47°(H)×37°(V)의 화각을 갖는 TOF 카메라가 사용되었다. 획득된 3-D 영상에서 배경과 몸통 분리, 이상치 제거 등의 전처리 과정을 거쳐서 몸통에 대한 격자 영상을 얻었다. 또한 각각의 격자에 깊이 정보를 적용한 수치적분으로 몸통 체적을 결정하였다. Calibration dataset에서 체중과 몸통체적의 선형회귀에 대한 결정계수는 0.8725로 나타났다. 한편 몸통 체적에 월령을 설명 변수로 추가한 체중 추정의 중회귀 모형에서 결정계수는 0.9083으로 나타났다. Validation dataset에서 중회귀 모형을 이용한 체중 추정의 MAPE와 RMSE는 각각 8.2%, 24.5kg으로 나타났다. 결과적으로 체중 추정을 위한 회귀 모형의 성능이 개선되고, 체중 추정에 소요되는 노력이 절감됨을 고려한다면 3-D 영상에서 결정된 몸통 체적이 한우의 체중 추정에 유효한 변수로 사용될 것이다.
In this paper, we break away from the method of removing and inspecting the GDI injector, measure the pressure change of the fuel rail pressure sensor when driving the GDI injector of a vehicle equipped with the GDI fuel system, and compare the results. analyzed.There was a pressure change in the fuel rail pressure sensor from the general drive GDI injector. There was no pressure change in the fuel rail pressure sensor when driving the GDI injector without injecting fuel. You can check the fuel injection status in the pressure change data of the fuel rail pressure sensor without removal the GDI injector.
The following results were obtained after developing and conducting tests on items set up for evaluation of the cotton machine system development by self-test and requesting an external authorized testing agency to conduct the test. In technology development, the re-materialization of cotton fragments reduced manufacturing costs by 40%, and the recovery rate was over 95% as a result of the cotton loss test for the development of cotton machine systems. The Feed Roller Speed Control performance test resulted in a revolution of 5 rev per minute.
In this paper, each controller's unique ID and PICO oscilloscope were used to measure the voltage waveform of each CAN communication line, and compare and analyze the serial decoding results. Using the voltage change level of the CAN communication line, it was possible to check whether the CAN-High line and the Low line were disconnected. And it was possible to infer the circuit disconnection point between the controller and the controller only with the unique ID information of each controller. And when the CAN-High circuit was disconnected, the voltage of the high line was measured at the same voltage level as the Low line.
In this paper, we compare and analyze the injector defects of P-ENG and S-ENG with normal injectors by measuring current waveforms, voltage waveforms, exhaust gases and driving fuel economy. In the case of FTS failure, the S-ENG reduced the overall injection time by 3.7% and the main injection by 3.5% compared to the normal engines. In the case of AFS failure, the overall injection time increased by 45.7% and the main injection time increased by 24.1% compared to the normal engine. The rest data showed that fuel economy of S-ENG had 25.9% higher than P-ENG, NOX had 162.5% higher than that of P-ENG, and CO2 of S-ENG had 26.7% lower than P-ENG.
본 연구는 최근 지구 온난화로 인하여 벼의 재배 가능 기간이 길어짐에 따라 남부지방의 벼 2기작 재배의 가능성을 확인하기 위해 수행되었다. 전기작 벼는 4월 15일에 9 개의 품종을 이앙하였다. 전기작 벼의 수확 후 후기작으로는 11개의 품종을 8월 1일에 이앙하여 11월 초에 수확하였다. 전기작의 5 개의 품종(기라라397, 백일미, 조안, 한설 그리고 중모1031)은 7월 말에 수확이 가능하였다. 전기작은 기라라397과 백일미 품종이 수량이 가장 많았다. 전기작의 쌀 수확량은 지역 평균 수확량의 약 93% 정도였다. 후기작은 지녹과 기라라397이 수량이 가장 많았다. 후기작 벼 재배에서 쌀 수확량은 정상적인 계절 재배보다 생육기간이 짧아 지역 평균 수확량의 약 70% 미만이었다. 결과적으로 한국 남부지역의 벼2기작은 경제적 실효성이 아직은 높지 않지만 지구 온난화로 인한 평균기온 상승과 식량자급율을 고려하여 지속적인 연구가 필요하다고 판단된다.
In this paper, the injectors with normal quantity, over quantity of +10%, under quantities of -10% and –30%, were mounted on S-ENG and P-ENG in order to measure the voltage energy, current energy and power supplied to the injectors and the fuel economy under several speed of rpm conditions. The voltage and current energy of S-ENG was greater than P-ENG, and the power of S-ENG was measured and analyzed 4.8 times higher than that of P-ENG at all injectors, and the tendency of carbon dioxide emissions calculated from fuel efficiency measurement results was not significantly affected by the type of injectors, but P-ENG was measured to be slightly affected by the type of injectors. It is assumed that the model year and mileage of the test vehicle affects this tendency.
In this paper, we investigate the relationship between control system of Bosch system and that of Delphi system by measuring the high and low voltage waveform, current waveform and fuel injection quantity of D-2 and R- engines. Waveform measurements are used the PICO scope and the CDS tester. The injectors of D-2 and R-engines were tested under no load condition using injector with normal fuel injection quantity, injector with small fuel injection quantity and injector with many fuel injection quantity. The relation between current energy and fuel injection quantity shows that the injector variation rate of D2-engine is much larger than that of R-engine. The injector current energy of the D2-engine was more linear than that of the R-engine, therefore making the system more stable. Although the control system of the D2-engine is a more stable system only in terms of the durability of the internal parts of the injector, the injector of the R-engine has a good response because the current value is large.
In this technology development, we have developed an automation system after developing a material rotation mixing process so that the manual process of sound absorbing materials can be supplied in quantities. After setting up 5kgf supply of the fused acoustic material, the setting value of 5kg was automatically supplied to the molded frame to reach the quantification supply. In the process of producing noise goods between floors, the automatic compression system was developed, which was a manual operation of three persons, and the production of one person was allowed, and the production of 200 sound absorbers per day, It has improved to 450. Quantitative supply unit was developed to reach 50.7mm for target 50±3mm based on the sound absorption product thickness indication, reducing the defect rate to less.
경남의 벼농사 대표 지대인 남부 중간지와 남부 평야지에서 질소 감비(7 kg/10 a)에 의한 고품질 쌀 생산을 위한 품종을 선발하고자 본 연구가 수행되었다. 7품종의 벼를 중간지에서 재배하였고 평야지에서는 10품종의 벼를 재배하여 평가하였다. 중간지에서 완전립의 수량은 보라미(526 kg/10 a)를 제외하고 대부분의 품종이 대조품종인 추청벼(533 kg/10 a)에 비해 높게 나타났다. 반면, 보라미와 고품벼, 온누리는 완전립률이 다른 품종에 비해 낮게 나타났다. 더욱이, 보라미와 대조품종인 추청벼는 도복지수가 다른 품종에 비해 높게 나타났다. 도정된 대조품종인 추청벼의 단백질 함량은 6.1%로 나타났고, 다른 품종들은 대조품종에 비해 비슷하거나 낮게 나타났다. 평야지에서는 남평벼(527 kg/10 a)만이 완전립 수량에서 대조품종인 일미벼(503 kg/10 a)에 비해 높게 나타났다. 그리고 호품벼, 신동진 그리고 칠보벼는 다른 품종들에 비해 완전립 비율이 더 낮게 나타났다. 그러나 호품벼(5.9%)와 진수미(6.0%), 신동진(5.9%), 칠보벼(6.0%), 황금노들(5.8%), 호평벼(6.0%)는 대조품종 일미벼(6.1%)에 비해 단백질 함량이 더 낮게 나타났다. 아밀로오스 함량, 백도, 식미 등은 두 지역에서 품종들 간 유의적 차이는 없었다. 결론적으로 완전립 비율, 완전립 수량, 단백질 함량, 도복 저항성, 등숙률 그리고 식미 등을 고려하면 중간지에서는 풍미1호, 새누리, 칠보벼가 평야지에서는 진수미, 황금노들이 고품질의 쌀을 생산하는데 적합한 품종으로 판단된다.
베일의 시장 판매를 위해서는 표준화된 품질과 상품의 정량화가 선행되어야 하며, 이를 뒷받침하기 위해 베일의 정량화가 가능한 베일러 개발이 필요하다. 베일의 크기보다 중량을 기준으로 정량화할 경우 수확물의 생산 조건과 관계없이 베일의 일정한 규격화가 가능해진다. 이러한, 중량기준 정량화가 가능한 베일러의 개발을 위해 가장 중요한 요소기술들 중 하나가 바로 가변 중량 측정 시스템이다.따라서 본 연구에서는 중량 가변이 가능한 베일러의 기초 연구로써 트레일러의 3점에 로드셀을 설치하여 트레 일러에 적재되는 내용물의 하중이 3점의 로드셀에 의해 모두 지탱되도록 플로팅 타입의 하중 측정 시스템을 구성하였다. 이를 이용하여 정적 하중과 동적 하중을 측정함으로써 하중 측정 시 발생하는 문제점 들을 파악하고, 중량 감응형 베일러 개발의 기초자료로 활용하기 위하여 연구는 수행되었다.그 결과 정적 측정 신호와 동적 측정 신호의 지배적인 주파수 성분은 각각 0∼0.5Hz와 0∼0.1Hz에서 발생하였으며, 사용된 전원으로 인한 60Hz의 주파수 성분과 시스템의 이동 시 지표면의 굴곡, 엔진의 구동 등으로 인하여 진동이 발생하였다. 그래서 이러한 노이즈를 제거하기 위하여 저주파 통과 필터(3 Order, Butterworth type, Cutoff frequency 0.1Hz)를 사용하였다. 편심 하중에 따른 측정 신호의 분석 결과 편심 하중은 하중 측정에 영향을 주지 않으며, 시스템의 이동속도 3.47km/h와 6.21km/h에서 측정된 하중과 예측 하중을 비교한 결과 각각 -2.42kgf와 -1.71kgf의 평균 하중 오차를 보였다. 즉, 시스템의 이동속도는 하중 측정에 영향을 미치지 않았으며, 추후 중량 감응형 가변 베일러에 본 시스템을 적용하 기 위해서는 실제 베일러의 기계적 진동과 비 진동 요인들을 규명해야 한다.
In this paper, we investigate the relationship between fuel injection quantity and voltage and current energy of Bosch system and Delphi system by measuring the high and low voltage waveform, current waveform, fuel injection quantity and fuel pressure of A and J-engines. Waveform measurements are made using the PICO scope and the CDS tester. The injectors of A and J engines were tested under no load condition using injector with normal fuel injection quantity, injector with small fuel injection quantity and injector with many fuel injection quantity. In case of normal injector, A-engine has higher fuel pressure, injection interval time, voltage energy, and current energy than J-engine. The current energy of the A-engine changed linearly compared to that of the J-engine. For over and under injectors, the change in the previous physical quantity was greater for the A-engine than for the J-engine. However, the duration time of maintaining to open the injector is controlled differently, and so the voltage and current energy values are changed, and the change of the current energy is larger than the voltage energy.
This paper investigates the relationship of voltage and current waveform between normal piezo injector and deterioration abnormal piezo injector. The experimental methods using Pico oscilloscope and GDS scan tool are employed to measure current and voltage waveform and fuel pressure of piezo injector. The experiment is carried out during no-load condition. A summary of the important results are as follows. 1) In case of normal injector, the fluctuation of duration time of piezo injector was linearly and regularly decreased with increasing engine speed, but the that of deterioration piezo injector was irregularly decreased with increasing engine speed. 2) In main injection, the peak value of the current waveform of abnormal injector was larger than that of normal injector, the duration time of deteriorated abnormal injector was less than that of normal injector at 800rpm and 1500rpm, but the duration time of deteriorated abnormal injector was larger than that of normal injector at 2000rpm and 3000rpm. This irregularity appears to be caused by the deterioration of the injector.
The ocean is very important to mankind for its infinite value in resource storage and utilization. In shallow coastal waters, landfill as well as pollution damage occurs frequently for the promotion of important public and private projects that are the driving forces of national development. In this case, compensation paid for the loss or damage of fishing rights acquired by the fishing community shall be distributed to each individual of the fishing community in accordance with the appropriate balance. In reality, as fishing communities in different sectors coexist, the voting rights of the general meeting of fishing communities are ignored as a minority, and the demand for the rights is ignored by the majority. Many other industries receive fish compensation, even though they have not suffered much damage. As a result serious conflicts between the individuals of the fishing community have caused social problems. Therefore, similar cases are investigated and analyzed to provide a reasonable solution.
In this paper, 'Pico scope' was used to measure and analyze high voltage waveforms of 'Grade injector' and 'IQA injector' due to defective solenoid injector of CRDI diesel engine, and the following conclusions were obtained. In the case of the injector of 'Grade Injector' and 'IQA Injector', there was no change in the injection timing of the injector while the injector was installed. However, by controlling the operation time, It is judged that the injector control is insufficiently controlled when the number of revolutions of the engine is increased to 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm in the idling state in the idling state because the injector failure is precisely controlled in the idling state, When determining the fault injector, the waveform of the 'Grade injector' and 'IQA injector' can be detected by waveform analysis by comparing the injection control time by measuring the high voltage waveform of the injector control in idle idling state. Can be easily diagnosed and maintained. I hope this study will be handed to the mechanics to make diagnosis of CRDI injector convenient.