In this study, effects of reducing white smoke at a heat exchange system for white smoke reduction were studied in the winter season. For this purpose, the heat transfer processes on the exhaust air were investigated by Solidworks. Five wave heat exchangers of air-to-air and air-to-water type were applied for the exhaust air heat recovery. The analytical condition of the exhaust air was fixed and the computational analysis was performed according to the change of SA(supply air) inlet velocities. In order to evaluate the performance of the heat exchange system for white smoke reduction, W(water)/SA recovered capacities and the temperature/ absolute humidity reduction rate were calculated. As SA inlet velocity increased, the exit temperature and absolute humidity of the mixing zone were reduced by up to about 40℃ and 0.12kg/kg respectively. Also, W/SA recovered capacities increased linearly up to about 35%.
In this study, the thermal behavior of adaptor housing was analyzed by the numerical method. The boundary conditions used to die casting process were the temperature of molten metal and injection time. As the temperature of the molten metal increased, the tensile strength of the product decreased by the blow hole generated in the molten metal, and the decreasing tendency was gradually decreased. As the injection time of the molten metal increased, the heat flux rose, but the degree of the increase was very small. So, the injection time of the molten metal had little effect on the thermal behavior and diffusion of the adapter housing. As a result, the heat of the molten metal was transferred into the housing and the thermal behavior spread widely.
A study on the weight reduction of a motor shaft in electric vehicle by using optimum design technique was carried out. The structural analysis of a motor shaft was performed by using ANSYS to investigate the structural safety. We also used HEEDS to find the optimal hollow shaft thickness. When the material of the hollow shaft is changed to SCM822H by using ANSYS 14.5 and HEEDS MDO, the weight could be reduced by about 53 % compared to the conventional solid one. From this study, the optimized dimensions of a hollow shaft were determined for light weight design.
LDV(laser Doppler velocimetry) measurements were conducted on the exit region of the impeller passage and the gap between the impeller and turbine blades under 0.8 speed ratio. The 0.8 speed ratio has an impeller speed of 2000rpm and a turbine speed of 1600rpm. A periodic variation of the mass flow rate is present in many of the measurements made. The frequency of this variation is the same as the frequency of the turbine blades passing the impeller passage exit. It is found that the instantaneous position of the turbine had effect on fluid flow inside the impeller passage and gap region. This study would aid in the construction of higher accuracy CFD models of this complex turbomachinery device.
of the marketed multi-later insulating curtain was carried out. Experiments is conducted by fabricating a test apparatus for investigating the heat flux characteristics. The multi-later insulating curtain used for the experiment was compared using the P, N, S, U and T company, which are commercially available, and the heat flux due to temperature difference between the experimental apparatus and the outside was compared and analyzed. When the internal temperature of the experimental result is the maximum temperature 60℃, the heat flux of multi-later insulating curtain is T Co.(73.1W/m2) > S Co.(119.5W/m2) > U Co.(155W/m2) > N Co.(163.1 W/m2) > P Co.(177.7W/m2). The heat flux means the quantity of heat passing through the unit time per unit area, and the higher the numerical value, the higher the quantity of heat passing through the multi-layer insulating curtain. This can be determined that high heat fluxes produce low heat resistance. Further, it has been found that the weight of the insulating curtain is largely unrelated to the heat insulating property, and the heat insulating curtain having a thickness containing a high internal air layer is excellent in the heat insulating property. In the future when manufacturing a heat insulating curtain, It is judged that it is desirable to manufacture a combination of heat insulating materials that contain a high internal air layer content and that can maintain the air layer even for long-term use while minimizing the volume.
In this study, the characteristics of muscle relaxation were analyzed by the experimental and numerical method. A skin tissue was produced by imitational biological tissue using the agar powder, saline solution and sugar. The tissue was exposed to three types of wavelength-blue visible radiation(410 nm), red visible radiation(635 nm), and infrared ray(830 nm). The temperature results along the depth of tissue were measured according to the variation of light wavelength and irradiation time. The temperature change of the tissue shown up similar pattern regardless of the light wavelength kinds. The wavelength of infrared ray penetrated strongly into tissue between 3.2 mm and 11.4 mm. Also, the temperature change with the irradiation time was small, and the temperature value of the infrared ray was the largest. As a result, the muscle relaxation will occur mainly at the infrared wavelength.
After CNN basic structure was introduced by LeCun in 1989, there has not been a major structure change except for more deep network until recently. The deep network enhances the expression power due to improve the abstraction ability of the network, and can learn complex problems by increasing non linearity. However, the learning of a deep network means that it has vanishing gradient or longer learning time. In this study, we proposes a CNN structure with MLP layer. The proposed CNNs are superior to the general CNN in their classification performance. It is confirmed that classification accuracy is high due to include MLP layer which improves non linearity by experiment. In order to increase the performance without making a deep network, it is confirmed that the performance is improved by increasing the non linearity of the network.
This paper investigates the relationship of voltage and current waveform between normal piezo injector and deterioration abnormal piezo injector. The experimental methods using Pico oscilloscope and GDS scan tool are employed to measure current and voltage waveform and fuel pressure of piezo injector. The experiment is carried out during no-load condition. A summary of the important results are as follows. 1) In case of normal injector, the fluctuation of duration time of piezo injector was linearly and regularly decreased with increasing engine speed, but the that of deterioration piezo injector was irregularly decreased with increasing engine speed. 2) In main injection, the peak value of the current waveform of abnormal injector was larger than that of normal injector, the duration time of deteriorated abnormal injector was less than that of normal injector at 800rpm and 1500rpm, but the duration time of deteriorated abnormal injector was larger than that of normal injector at 2000rpm and 3000rpm. This irregularity appears to be caused by the deterioration of the injector.
In this study, we analyzed the structural safety and vibration characteristics of rotational drive in 3D CT scan equipment using finite element analysis. The analysis results showed a safety factor of 9.2 and a left and right vertical deflectional deviation of 0.24mm from the maximum equivalent stress. After applying weight compensation of 27.7kgf, the structural analysis reduced the safety factor to 7.6, but the deflectional deviation of the left and right structure was reduced to 0mm. Also, we presented the optimum design of rotational drive through the vibration analysis.
In order to remove rust and impurities from surface of raw SUS circular bar, peeling machine is used to make lustrous and clean surface of SUS circular bar. Drawing process system is used to manufacture SUS hexagonal bar. SUS hexagonal bar have been widely used to make hexagonal bolt/nut, adapter and fittings and so on. The purpose of this study is to investigate the stabilities for guide bar of clamp in drawing process system. As the results, the guide bar showed structural stability in cases of below load of 50 Ton and over hook radius of 3.0mm. Further as the thickness of guide bar hooking with jaw was increased, minimum safety factor was decreased.
Combining digital automation solutions throughout recent manufacturing process is essential. Advanced robot and mechanical techniques are required for design, manufacture, and distribution process. Manual design of repetitive similar mechanical components during the development phase of these advanced machines and robots can occur wasting time and money. Developed gear design module, which is the power transfer system mechanical component, was programmed in the Visual Basic language in CATIA V5 environment. Automation Process is Based on Parametric Modeling Method. and it was found to be effective in reducing design time compared to designers manual modeling.
The model predictive controller performance of the mobile robot is set to an arbitrary value because it is difficult to select an accurate value with respect to the controller parameter. The general model predictive control uses a quadratic cost function to minimize the difference between the reference tracking error and the predicted trajectory error of the actual robot. In this study, we construct a predictive controller by transforming it into a quadratic programming problem considering velocity and acceleration constraints. The control parameters of the predictive controller, which determines the control performance of the mobile robot, are used a simple weighting matrix Q, R without the reference model matrix Ar by applying a quadratic cost function from which the reference tracking error vector is removed. Therefore, we designed the predictive controller 1 and 2 of the mobile robot considering the constraints, and optimized the controller parameters of the predictive controller using a genetic algorithm with excellent optimization capability.
In this study, the effect of pre-aging treatment for inhibition of natural aging of Al-4.8Zn-1.3Mg alloy by extrusion process was investigated. Firstly, the as-cast microstructure of Al-4.8Zn-1.3Mg alloy billet and its evolution during homogenization(460℃, 4h + 510℃, 5h) were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), hardness analysis. The as-cast microstructures of Al-4.8Zn-1.3Mg alloy reveal Mg2Zn, Al5Cu, Al3Cu formed between dendrities. After homogenization, MgZn, Al4Cu, Al13Cu phases precipitated into the matrix. In addition, standard deviation of homogenized billet was improved than as-cast billet from 2.62 to 0.99. According to pre-aging(100℃, 1h) Al-4.8Zn-1.3Mg alloy by extrusion process, yield strength and tensile strength deviation improved more than condition by natural aging.
Molding is the root industry of the manufacturing as a means to mass-produce developed prototypes. Molds are typically divided into injection molds and press mold industries. Injection molds produce the products by injection of molten plastic into a mold, and press molds are molded and bended plate. The ejection system, such as eject pins, is used to separate the manufactured products from the mold, which involves a number of hole operations. Location, diameter and depth of holes are often tabulated and managed collectively when designing 2D drawings. The design efficiency was realized by applying CATIA Automation to the 3D model and bringing in the data of the holes in the Excel data.
The tubular link chain conveyor works under very extreme conditions such as high tensile load, friction, and dangerous operating environments. In this study, we propose an optimal design plan for reducing cost and improving performance through weight reduction of tubular link chain conveyors for sludge transport. For light weight of tubular link chain conveyor, the optimization software using SHERPA algorithms, HEEDS was used in conjunction with ANSYS Mechanical V14.5, which is widely used in structural analysis, to achieve optimal tubular link chain. Through the optimization process, 19% light weight was achieved.
In this paper, dynamic model of 120mm self-propelled mortar is developed, and multi flexible body dynamics analysis is performed to analyze stresses occurring in the mount during mortar fire. For this, vehicle dynamic system, mortar dynamic system, and finite element mount model are proposed. The commercial program Recurdyn is used in the analysis. As a result of the analysis, the maximum stress(146.9MPa) occurred at the mount side plate. In order to analyze the validity of the analysis results, we performed strain measurement tests by selecting three major points, and the errors of results were 7.91%, 11.15%, and 18.23%, respectively. It is confirmed that the tendency of analysis and test is similar.
In this study, the regression equation was suggested to predict of the shot ball velocity according to blade shapes based on discrete element (DE) analysis. First, the flat type blade DE model was used in the analysis, the validity of the DE model was verified by giving that the velocity of the shot ball almost equal to the theoretical one. Next, the DE analyses for curved and combined blade models was accomplished, and their analytical velocities of shot ball were compared with the theoretical one. The velocity of combined blade model was greatest. From this, the regression equation for velocity of shot ball according to the blade shape based on the DE analysis was derived. Additionally, the wind speed measurement experiment was carried out, and the experimental result and analytical one were the same. Ultimately, it was confirmed that the prediction method of the velocity of shot ball based on DE analysis was effective.
Vortex Generators are used in heat exchanger to enhance the heat transfer of air side. 3-D numerical analysis is performed on heat transfer characteristics of a channel with trapezoidal vortex generator. We investigate the effects of vortex generators with two different inclined angles to flow direction which are forward and backward vortex generators. The thermal hydraulic performance such as Nu and pressure drop, is compared quantitatively. The results show that vortex generator enhances the heat transfer by developing boundary layers and secondary flow in the downstream. The downwash flow region corresponds to the maximum Nu, while the upwash flow region corresponds to Nu minimum. In the view of the heat transfer characteristics, FVG is better than BVG. However, when flow is turbulent as Re increases, the pressure drop for FVG is higher than that for BVG.
Graphene oxide (GO) laminate is a new promising material for water purification system, which has extraordinary permeability only for water molecule. It consists of numerous nano-channels, in which water molecules could be nano-confined, resulting in slip of the molecules for very fast transportation speed. In this study, water penetration rate via different thickness of GO membrane according to driven pressures are measured experimentally, so that speed of water molecules and permeability are evaluated. Generally, water penetration rate via a membrane with macroscopic-sized channel increases linearly with pressure difference between up and bottom side of the membrane, but that via GO membrane approaches asymptotic value (i.e. saturation) as like a log function. Moreover, the permeability of GO membrane was observed in inverse proportion to its thickness. Based on the experimental observations, a correlation for volume flux via GO membrane was suggested with respect to its thickness and external pressure difference.
The 3-way valve have been used as a valve for opening and closing the valve by the flow control in the pressure system of the cryogenic and high pressure environment. In this paper, numerical analysis and experimental study on fracture nipple of 3-way ultra high pressure valve applied to space launch vehicle was carried out. We have developed a 3-way valve numerical simulation modeler of cryogenic environment using commercial software ANSYS 18.2. As results of numerical analysis, optimum nipple condition was derived. In addition, a 3-way valve prototype was fabricated and the fracture test was performed and compared with the numerical analysis results.