The enhancement of heat transfer in cooling system of cylindrical lithium-ion battery pack is numerically investigated by installing fins on the cooling plate. Battery Design StudioⓇ software is used for modeling electro-chemical heat generation in the battery and the conjugated heat transfer is analyzed with the commercial package STAR-CCM+. The result shows that installing fins on the cooling plate increases the convective heat transfer on the surface and thus lowers the maximum temperature of the battery pack. As the length and thickness of the fins increase, heat transfer in the battery pack improves. Considering the geometry and airflow of the battery pack, the optimal values for the length and thickness of the fin are both 2mm. As the convective heat transfer coefficient of the surface increases, the maximum temperature of the battery pack is greatly reduced and the temperature gradient is greatly improved.
The effect of flow direction on heat transfer in water cooling channel of lithium-ion battery is numerically investigated. Battery Design StudioⓇ software is used for modeling electro-chemical heat generation in the battery and the conjugated heat transfer is analyzed with the commercial package STAR-CCM+. The result shows that the maximum temperature and temperature difference of battery with Type 1 are the lowest because the heat transfer in the entrance region near the electrode is enhanced. As the inlet velocity is increased, the maximum temperature and temperature difference of battery decreases but the pressure loss increases. The pressure loss in Type 2 channel is the lowest due to the shortest channel length, while the pressure loss with Type 3 or 4 channel is the highest because of the longest channel length. Considering heat transfer performance and pressure loss, Type 1 is the best cooling channel.
The improvement of heat transfer in water cooling passage of lithium-ion battery is numerically studied by employing trapezoidal vortex generators. Battery Design StudioⓇ software is used for modeling electro-chemical heat generation in the battery. The conjugated heat transfer is analyzed with the commercial package STAR-CCM+ in terms of inlet flow velocities. The result shows that vortex generator enhances the convective heat transfer by developing thermal boundary layers and secondary flows in downstream, which results in reducing the average temperature of the battery by about 1℃. The heat transfer is enhanced for the whole inlet velocity, while the pressure loss sharply increases at more than inlet velocity of 0.1m/s. The optimum inlet velocity is around 0.1m/s for in terms of the heat transfer and pressure loss.
The effect of inclination angle and attack angle on heat transfer enhancement of trapezoidal vortex generator was numerically investigated. The commercial package STAR-CCM+ was utilized to analyze the heat transfer and flow characteristics with various inclination and attack angle of vortex generator. The result shows that the optimum inclination angles are α =30°~40° in terms of the heat transfer and pressure drop. At more than 40° of inclination angle, the transverse vortex is dominant, so that the pressure drop is severe and the heat transfer is reduced. As the attack angle is increased, the transverse vortex is reduced, so that the pressure drop is improved. The optimum attack angle is β =30° because the heat transfer performance is maintained. However, more than 30° of attack angle, the heat transfer is decreasing.
Vortex Generators are used in heat exchanger to enhance the heat transfer of air side. 3-D numerical analysis is performed on heat transfer characteristics of a channel with trapezoidal vortex generator. We investigate the effects of vortex generators with two different inclined angles to flow direction which are forward and backward vortex generators. The thermal hydraulic performance such as Nu and pressure drop, is compared quantitatively. The results show that vortex generator enhances the heat transfer by developing boundary layers and secondary flow in the downstream. The downwash flow region corresponds to the maximum Nu, while the upwash flow region corresponds to Nu minimum. In the view of the heat transfer characteristics, FVG is better than BVG. However, when flow is turbulent as Re increases, the pressure drop for FVG is higher than that for BVG.
The effect of water vapor addition on the ignition delay of iso-octane/air mixture was numerically investigated with detailed chemical reaction mechanism. The Chemkin-III was utilized to evaluate the delay time of autoignition for isobaric conditions. By dilution effect and thermal effect, water vapor addition increases the ignition delay time. However, the chemical effect by adding water vapor makes the ignition delay shortened. The ignition delay by the chemical effect is reduced by two ways. Dissociation of water vapor increases the quantities of OH and H. One way is that OH directly makes the rate of iso-octane oxidation reaction 2 increase. The other is that HO2 is produced more by three-body reaction, H+O2+M →HO 2+M, which makes the rate of iso-octane oxidation reaction 3 increase. All trends of three effects are similar according to water vapor addition.
The effect of EGR on fuel economy was investigated in a gasoline direct injection engine. The 1-D cycle simulation program of GT-Power was utilized to evaluate fuel consumption rate. At high load, fuel consumption increased by about 2~6% according to EGR rate. Knock mitigation was the main effects, gaining about 80% of the total fuel consumption improvement. At low load, fuel consumption reduction was 0.6~2%, which was much lower than that for high load. The lower improvement of fuel consumption at low load is attributed to solely dilution and chemical effects of exhaust gas.
A numerical approach for ventilated disc brake with holes is carried out to investigate the effect of holes on the heat transfer characteristics. The numerical simulation code STAR-CCM+ is utilized to calculate flow and temperature fields with polyhedral meshes. The steady state results show that the holes make the flow velocity on the outer surface increasing, which induce the improvement of convective heat transfer on the outer surface. In the ventilated channel with holes, the convective heat transfer can be reduced due to the inflow of hot air through holes. In unsteady state, the disc has reached the highest temperature in 1,8s since the brake was engaged. The surface of disc without holes has maximum temperatures along the ventilated channels, while the surface temperatures of dis with holes are uniform.
In this study, a numerical approach for automotive louvered fin heat exchanger is carried out to investigate the effect of louvered angle on the heat transfer characteristics. The numerical simulation code STAR-CCM+ is utilized to calculate flow and temperature fields with polyhedral meshes. The results show that the flow efficiency is increased as the louver angle is high. Also, the outlet temperatures are nearly the same according to louver angles because the average Nusselt numbers are nearly equivalent regardless of louver angle.
The effect of gasoline-ethanol blends on performance and NOx emission was investigated in a SI engine with port and direct fuel injection systems. The 1-D cycle simulation program of GT-Power was utilized to analyze the performance of thermodynamic cycle. The results showed that the brake torques are increased with the addition of ethanol to gasoline because of the improvements of volumetric efficiency. The engine with direct ethanol blends injection system has more power than that with port gaoline injection system, which is caused by the higher latent heat of ethanol.