In this study, the structural and fatigue analyses were carried out according to the shape of the self-made car frame. As a result of structural analysis, all models are shown to have the weak strength and large deformation, as the equivalent stress increases at the forward part of the impact force. It can be seen that model 3 is deformed less than other models 1 or 2. And model 3 with the truss structure prevents the great deformation from the collision. In case of irregular fatigue loads, the fatigue life of the ‘Sample history’ increased by about 59.3 times compared to the ‘SAE bracket history’ under extreme fatigue load conditions, indicating that the fatigue load condition of the ‘Sample history’ were stable. The fatigue life and deformation of model 3 among all models are significantly different to models 1 and 2. If the research results are applied to the design of self-made cars, it will be useful for improving the durability and preventing the damage. The results of this study can be effectively utilized to investigate the values of stresses and deformations, and fatigue lives without the experiments of fracture and fatigue according to the shape of the car frame.
Porous Fe-Cu-C alloy was sintered by Pulsed Current Activated Sintering(PCAS) method within 10 min from horizontal ball mill mixture. The relative density of Fe-20wt.%Cu-0.8wt.%C alloy fabricated by PCAS method was 91%. The average hardness of the Fe-20wt.%Cu-0.8wt.%C alloy was HRB 92. The phase analysis, microstructure and composition information of the sintered alloy were investigated by using XRD, FESEM, EDAX.
The source of wayside noise for the train are the aerodynamic noise, wheel/rail noise, and power unit noise. The major source of railway noise is the wheel/rail noise caused by the interaction between the wheels and rails. The Structure borne noise is mainly a low frequency problem. The train noise and vibration nearby the elevated railway make one specific issue. The microphone array method is used to search sound radiation characteristics of elevated structure to predict the noise propagation from an elevated railway. In this paper, the train noise and structure borne noise by train are measured. From the results, we investigated the effect on the sound absorption tunnel for elevated railway.
In this study, optimizations were carried out for a heater core and an evaporator installed in a passenger car. The main geometric parameters of each component were selected as design variables, and the main performances examined were the outlet temperature and the pressure drop. In addition, the sensitivity analysis was performed to grasp the dominant design variable. The thermal flow analysis for each component was performed using the commercial program STAR CCM+. On the other hand, EasyDesign, a commercial program based on DOE and metamodel-based optimization, was used as an optimization tool. The optimized performances of the heater core were compared with performance target, and finally, the improved designs of the heater and the evaporator were presented.
Defects in most structures can be generated not only on outside but also on inside or on the back-side during the manufacturing or construction process. Also they cause the growth of defects due to operation of various complex environments and structures will be destroyed eventually. In order to improve the reliability of the structure, the detection and size-estimation of defects should be investigated. In this paper, as an extension of previous studies on surface defects, two-dimensional artificial backside cracks (blind cracks) into paramagnetic material were evaluated by using the same aluminum probe. The potential drop at the defect position is distributed in the n-shape in the case of the back defect, which is different from results of the surface defect (u-shape). The potential drops at the defect position are measured with the largest value. The potential drop ratio (Vcmax/Vs) for the defective position is used as a parameter to predict the thickness (l) of defect position.
Forged part made of Cold heading quality wire materials are used for automotive brake systems. The cost reduction of forged products is a major issue because of the strict shape change. A series of studies were conducted to minimize the cost of EPB spindle process among brake parts. In order to reduce the material cost, heat treatment-abbreviated material was applied and the formability on the processes was verified by the ductile fracture theory. In addition, the causes of shape fixation and die life degradation were analyzed using the numerical simulation. The process cost has been minimized by re-designing process, changing the product shape, and the die material.
The improvement of heat transfer in water cooling passage of lithium-ion battery is numerically studied by employing trapezoidal vortex generators. Battery Design StudioⓇ software is used for modeling electro-chemical heat generation in the battery. The conjugated heat transfer is analyzed with the commercial package STAR-CCM+ in terms of inlet flow velocities. The result shows that vortex generator enhances the convective heat transfer by developing thermal boundary layers and secondary flows in downstream, which results in reducing the average temperature of the battery by about 1℃. The heat transfer is enhanced for the whole inlet velocity, while the pressure loss sharply increases at more than inlet velocity of 0.1m/s. The optimum inlet velocity is around 0.1m/s for in terms of the heat transfer and pressure loss.
In this study, the deformation, equivalent stress and strain energy were analyzed on the electric kick board emerging as a new means of transportation at the accident of a front collision according to each shape were analyzed. The largest part deformation happened at the handle, and the board part where the person’s feet was placed was seen to become weak. The equivalent stress was most visible at the board section, unlike the deformation results. In particular, the deformation and stress of model A which has a long and thin neck, have occurred greatly. Therefore, the longer the neck, the greater the deformation and stress occur. Among all models, the deformation and stress were the smallest at model C. As model A has a particularly thinner neck and board connection part, a large strain energy appeared. Therefore, it is considered that the connection needs to be reinforced thickly and firmly. On the study result, the thicker the board part of the electric kick board and the lower the body of the vehicle, the safer it is. The results of this study can be effectively applied to investigate the values of stresses and deformations, and strain energies through structural analysis without the fracture test at the front collision according to the shape of electric kick board.
In this analysis, the analytical model was verified through the normal mode analysis of the piston for the 2.9 liter IDI (indirect injection) engine. Heat transfer analysis was carried out by selecting two cases of applied temperature using the validated model. The first case was a condition of 350℃ on the piston upper surface and 100℃ on the piston body and inner wall. In the second case, the conditions were set to give a temperature of 400℃ on the upper surface of the piston and 100℃ on the piston body and the inner wall. In addition, the temperature distribution due to heat transfer was obtained for the pistons with boundary conditions of two cases, and then the thermal stress distribution due to thermal expansion was obtained using the input. Using this analysis result, the thermal stress caused by thermal expansion due to the thermal conduction of the piston is examined and used as the basic data for design.
This study has related to lightweight automobiles due to global warming with the reduction of fossil fuel reserves are rapidly progressing around the automobile industry.
This study has revealed the relationship for the mechanical properties via the analyzed microstructure, precipitated phase variation of the wheel hub of a commercial vehicle manufactured using molten forging technology using A356 and A357 alloys, which are high-strength Al-Si-Mg base cast aluminum alloys. Differential scanning calorimetry has performed to analyze the precipitation amount of each alloy that influences the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy. The XRD analysis has measured for the microstructure's crystal phase on A356 and A357 alloys.
In this paper has evaluated to compare the properties of the A356 alloy and the A357 alloy for the mechanical properties. The A356 alloy has confirmed that a microstructure is finer than A357 alloy, and a quantity of precipitated material is more than A357 alloy. Therefore, this study confirmed that the A356 alloy has better mechanical properties than the A357 alloy.
The production of turbulence near a wall is the governing mechanism of the turbulent drag from external flow around bodies and in internal flows involving turbulence. The pocket is closely associated with the occurrence of the large Reynolds stress producing motions, and therefore implicitly involved with the turbulence production process. Within the wall region, hot-wire measurements show that a strong vortex forms within the pockets. This vortex is the rearrangement of existing sublayer vorticity and its amplification. The work in this area has been applied to the prediction and reduction of drag. The study is focused on the time scale of the pockets. The relationship between pocket time scale and modified wall has been found. By changing the upstream boundary condition at the wall the time scale of pockets were increased.
Anticipation of welding deformation with finite element method is a very interested topic in the industries, adequate heat source model is essential for concluding reasonable results. This study is related to estimate the parameters of Goldak heat source model, and global optimization algorithm is applied to this research. The heat affected zone (HAZ) boundary line of bead on plate (BOP) welding is used as the target, parameters of heat sources are used as the variables. Adaptive simulated annealing is applied and the optimal result is obtained out of 1,000 candidates. The convergence of finite element method and the global optimization is meaningful for estimation of welding deformation, which could enhance to reduce the resources and time for experiments.
The cast iron pipe protection of submarine cables has a bump in the connection, so the guide device for checking the position and location of the submarine cable must pass through the curved surface. Since the connection is present at a regular intervals, impact loads are periodically applied, affecting the durability of the guide device. In this study, the design was changed to improve the durability of guide device links. And for the analysis of the durability for link of guide device, the flexible dynamic analysis of the guide device was performed using MSC.Adams, and the dynamic stress acting on the link was calculated using MSR(Modal Stress Recovery) method. As a result, the dynamic stress is reduced by 17.9%~31.1%. In addition, durability was calculated for the initial model and the improved model. As a result, the durability of the new model was improved more than 200 % better than to the initial model.
Recently, at-home workouts, which allows people to exercise easily and comfortably at home without going to the gym, has been in the spotlight. Accordingly, a lot of household equipment is produced, but weight exercise equipment is limited in use at home because of its heavy weight or volume. Therefore, this paper proposes a new form of exercise equipment that can be used at home by transforming the exercise equipment used in the fitness center. The proposed mechanism replaces the weight part of the strength exercise device, which is the key to weight control, with an electric motor. Three major muscle exercise instruments (long pull machine, curl cable machine, and let down machine) were analyzed by dynamic analysis using a multipurpose dynamic program (DAFUL). This shows that the proposed equipment can perform various sports. Therefore, the proposed mechanism is expected to be applicable at home, and this study is expected to be rapidly mass-produced by emphasizing practicality.
In this study, the explosion processes of the battery according to by heating was identified using complex sensors including temperature, infrared (IR), visible, and ultraviolet (UV) sensors. A safe chamber was prepared for the explosion of the batteries according to heating. In order to detect signals from the battery during heating, complex sensors including temperature, IR, visible, and UV sensors were used inside the safe chamber. The heating was increased from room temperature to 165℃ at 10℃/min and then, kept 165℃. During the heating was kept at 165℃, the battery was exploded and a temperature was increased up to 380℃ abruptly due to explosion of the battery. Before the battery was exploded, the signals of the sensors were not detected. However, during explosion of the battery, the signals of IR, visible, and UV sensors were strongly detected. By analyzing various signals of the these sensors, the explosion of the battery according to heating was investigated.
MDPS control has been a difficult problem for the past two decades. Though there are many ways to control steering feeling, the MDPS control logic is still being upgraded or developed for steering feel improvement. A new point of view in MDPS is proposed by evolution logic, which is a new driver friendly improvement based on the analysis of driver’s driving pattern. As a result of the application of evolution logic, this paper shows that drivers behaviour effecting factors among MDPS parameters will efficiently lead to customers’ satisfaction.
The purpose of this study was to improve the noise measurement method of noise sources and the corresponding noise reduction measures during each manufacturing process closest to the workers in the large and hige power machine. To this end, the noise generated in the large and high power machine was measured and analyzed, and the frequency characteristics of noise sources and the causes of noise were identified. The noise map was used to predict the noise reduction effect. Moreover, it is expected that this will ultimately contribute to the reduction of human risks caused by the noise of the large and high power machine.
Animal orthopedic implants are an area that has recently been come into the light due to growing number of single-person households and increasing of interest in pets. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method to design and manufacture a bushing in a desired direction and angle with the environment of use, while the bone joint plate could be stably deformed during animal fracture surgery. It was found that the bone joint plate was capable of deformation in all directions and was designed to be transformed to the desired angle without degrading the basic properties of bending strength. Also, it was found that the bushing-type bone joint plate could be controlled in multiple directions and angle at omni-directional movements(0°-360°) and 0°-10° moving forward, backward and side to side.
The objective of this study is to find the optimal production process in the aluminum IMS core parts. To reduce the production process, the total stage was designed at a total of 2 stages and 3 stages. In the total 2 stages process, the production stage was divided into a shaft part production and a yoke part production. In the total 3 stages process, the yoke production stages were subdivided into the 2 stages for distributing the stress. The results were compared and analyzed in terms of effective stress, folding characteristics and load characteristics. The stress distributions according to the production total stages were almost the same, the yoke production stage was received high stress due to the high strain. Both the tubular shaft yoke and solid shaft yoke according to the production total stages did not have any problems in the production because there did not occur the folding, metal flow and under-fill. When the total 2 stages were employed, the load for producing the tubular shaft yoke and the solid shaft yoke was decreased by 35.0% and 27.1%, respectively. As the results, when the total 2 stages process is applied rather than 3 stages process, the product is produced quickly and it is expected to be advantageous for the production cost due to the low load.
In recent years, studies on various 3D scanner applications, including those on quality control and reverse engineering, have been conducted in the shipbuilding industry. Appropriate scanner selection, scanning environment setting by targets, and data postprocessing are essential for effective 3D scanning projects for small crafts. In this study, a non-contact handheld-type 3D scanner was used for molds and hull products for the 10– 30-ft class of small crafts. Small crafts have fewer geometric features and several glare surfaces; thus, anti-glare and texture feature addition preprocessing is critical. The 3D scanning results are used for geometry quality control of single panels and curved surfaces in craft hulls. Consequently, international rule-based weight estimation calculation sheets have been developed and applied for product weight quality control.