The boundary element alternating method is applied to two dimensional and axisymmetric racture mechanics problems. Different crack depths are considered with particular emphasis on cracks. Several methods of calculating the stress intensity factor are presented and applied to several practical examples to demonstrate their accuracy.
Hydroforming is a forming technology in which a steel tube is set in a die and formed to fit a specified shape by applying hydraulic pressure from inside the tube while also applying force in the tube axial direction (axial feed). In present study, the whole process of automotive cross members simulation and development by hydroforming technology to apply high strength steel is covered. At the part design stage, it requires feasibility study and process design aided by CAE(Computer Aided Design) to confirm hydroformability in details. Overall possibility of hydroformable cross members parts could be examined by cross sectional analyses. Moreover, it is essential to ensure the formability of tube material on every forming step such as pre-bending, preforming and hydroforming. At the die design stage, all the components of prototyping tool are designed and interference with press is investigated from the point of geometry and thinning.
This paper deals with selecting an optimal rapid prototyping(RP) machine that suits the end use of a part. Evaluation factors include only major attributes such as accuracy, roughness, strength, part cost and build time that greatly affect the performance of RP machines. Accuracy, surface roughness and strength are presented as crisp values. The part cost and build time identified as just approximate ranges due to different human cost and many variable parameters are presented by linguistic values. It can be described with triangular fuzzy numbers. Based on the evaluation values obtained, an appropriate RP process for a specific part application can be selected by using the modified TOPSIS(Technique of Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) method including crisp data as well as linguistic variables, and each weight on the alternatives is assigned by using a fuzzy weight. The ranking order of all machines provides the decision information for the selection of RP machines.
The potential possibility of oxygenated fuel for di-ether group oxygenated additives such as Methyl tertiary butyl ether(MTBE) and diethylene glycol dimethyl ether(DGM) were investigated for the sake of exhausted smoke reduction from diesel engine. They include oxygen content approximately from 18% to 36%, it is a kind of oxygenated fuel that the smoke emission of them is reduced remarkably compared with commercial diesel fuel. In the experiment by gas chromatography, unburned hydrocarbons of oxygenated fuel were reduced than those of commercial diesel fuel.
Our environment is faced with serious problems related to the air pollution from automobiles in these days. In particular, the exhaust emissions of diesel engines are recognized as main causes of the air pollution. DI diesel engine is widely used for the sake of minimization on exhaust emission. Because biodiesel fuel is a renewable and alternative fuel for diesel engine, its usability is expanded. The smoke emission of esterfied rapeseed oil is reduced remarkably in comparison with commercial gas oil, that is, it was reduced approximately 44.5% at 1500rpm. But, brake specific energy consumption showed very slight differences. It was concluded that esterfied rapeseed oil can utilize effectively as an alternative and renew-able fuel for diesel engine.
The small break loss-of-coolant accidents for the HANARO fuel test loop have been predicted by MARS code. Conservative method was used for the prediction of the loss-of-coolant accidents. The maximum peak cladding temperature was calculated as 1286K, which was lower than the design limit temperature (1477K) of nuclear fuels for the HANARO fuel test loop. The maximum peak cladding temperature occurred for the cold leg break in the HANARO pool. The hydrogen generation and oxidation of the fuel cladding were also negligible. Consequently, it is ensured that the emergency cooling water system for the HANARO fuel test loop is appropriate for the small break loss-of-coolant accidents.