In this study, the change of cooling water temperature (72, 85, 95 ℃) and engine speed (1,800, 2,000, 2,200, 2,400rpm) were experimentally investigated to confirm the operation performance characteristics of auxiliary engine for refrigeration unit. The experimental setup consisted of fuel consumption meter, power meter, and heat transfer unit. The operation performances such as BSFC, exhaust temperature, power generation, and engine efficiency of the auxiliary engine showed similar characteristics in the present experimental range, according to the change of cooling water temperatures and rpms. As the torque increased, the BSFC decreased significantly and the exhaust temperature increased. The power generation increased linearly and the efficiency was insignificant at more than 40 Nm torque.
In order to measure the flow rate of liquid sodium, the flow measurement method should be determined by considering the opacity of sodium, the chemical reaction with air and water, and so on. By using the segmental wedge flowmeter which is one of the representative devices for flow measurement, the methodology for measuring the liquid sodium flow was examined and the flow characteristics were observed. The variations of the discharge coefficients according to various flow conditions were also evaluated. In addition, the structural integrity at high temperature condition was evaluated by using the liquid sodium as a working fluid and these study results were reflected in the design of the segmental wedge flowmeter.
The performance of ground-based optical structures is highly sensitive to external environments, such as airflow in open space. In this paper, initial aerodynamic data due to ambient air flow were analyzed in optical models designed through knowledge-based design algorithm, and dynamic data acting on optical structures in turbulent flow with velocity of 50m/s were analyzed to present the initial shape design conditions of the structures. The simulation results showed that the maximum pressure, minimum pressure, and maximum differential pressure acting on the mirror are directly proportional to the sweep angle.
A coal dust scattered from storage and transfer facilities of coal power plant is led to a air pollution. It is difficult to reduce some scattered coal dust by used filter system such as bag filter and electric precipitator because of being scattered in the large area. The need to cut down coal dust generation has been increased as being reinforced regulation to reduce dust from coal power plant. So this is a experimental basic study which reduces coal dust generation. This study is to reduce scattering rate of the coal dust by collision and interception between fine fog droplet and coal dust particles. The reducing rate of coal dust is evaluated by droplet size of 10㎛ sprayed. It is evaluated that capture efficiency is lower as a coal dust concentration become higher. And also it is increase as droplet size is decrase and droplet density is increase. It is resulted that coal dust coefficient to optimize the fog system design is 25μg/m3/l/hr and capture efficiency of coal dust is about 80%.
This study was carried out to standardize the material properties of roll-over protective structure (ROPS) for agricultural tractor. The material properties which were obtained from stress-strain curve, a result of tensile test stress, were used to apply to the virtual test and varied from one production lot to the other and from one manufacturer to the other. And the finite element analysis was performed on the ROPS according to the OECD code. The results show that the load-displacement curves of virtual test were approximately equal to the actual test curves. The manufacturer or lot has been shown to have little effect on the properties of the material. Therefore, it is expected that the representative values that can be used in the finite element analysis can be determined by averaging the property values.
The pipe for water supply is essential part among SOC (Social Overhead Capital) fields. Pipe for water supply is mainly damaged by deterioration of pipe, earthquake, ground sinking and so on. The leakage of water have been led to enormous economical loss in our country. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural stability of flexible joint for relaxing impact due to earthquake and ground sinking. For this purpose, flexible joint was simulated using tensile load and internal pressure. As the results, flexible joint for structural stability was needed the tensile load of below 3 ton and internal pressure of below 60 kgf/cm2. However, it is considered that real flexible joint should be applied more high safety factor than that of simulation result because of combined stress.
This research has been conducted to develop a prevention module of collision and balance lost in electric wheelchairs. Ultrasonic sensors were used for detecting obstacles. Giro and acceleration sensors were used for measuring the tilt angle of wheel chair frame. Kalman filters were employed for filtering high-frequency noise of acceleration sensor and removing zero drift of the Giro sensor. The presence and location of obstacles were detected, and their information was sent to the user smartphone. When the tilt angle of the wheelchair frame exceeded a certain value, a warning signal was set to operate. Raspberry Pi camera module was used to transfer rear view image data to the smartphone to help the driver acknowledge obstacles in the rear side. A DSP processor with high computing performance was necessary to realize a real-time processing of the sensor and image data. Our research showed that a prevention module of collision and balance lost connected to a smartphone can be realized at a considerable low price.
In this study, the structural analysis was carried out according to the structure of lumber support. For the optimal design of the automotive lumber support, It was examined which one was most stable among three models A, B, and C. As the result of structural analysis, all three models showed the greatest deformations at the wire portion of the lumber support, and model A showed less equivalent stress and deformation compared with models B and C. As model A showed the lowest equivalent stress and deformation among all models, model A was shown to be the model with the excellent strength. This analysis established the stable design by comparing models A, B and C. Also, It is thought that this study result can be highly utilized at the seat design of real automobile.
I investigated the homogeneous liquid crystal alignment using parallel patterning on nickel oxide thin film. Nickel oxide thin film was prepared by sol-gel process, which is and cost effective method to form oxide thin film. Since the sol-gel process is solution driven method, the patterning on nickel oxide can be achieved by imprinting lithography. Nickel oxide with parallel pattern was used for liquid crystal alignment layer, which can be a alternative to conventional rubbing process to aligning a liquid crystal molecules. As a result, a high transmittance of 83.9% was confirmed for the NiO film, and a stable horizontal orientation pretilt angle of 0.2° occurred in the imprinted NiO film. These results were judged to be a positive level that can be commercialized in the horizontal alignment type liquid crystal display that is currently used universally. Anisotropic characteristics of nickel oxide induced by a parallel pattern leads to the alignment of liquid crystals.
V-type coupling, which is often applied to turbochargers, is a mechanical fastener where radial forces close turbine housing and bearing housing together. It prevents leakage of exhaust gases by contact pressure of the backplate caused by the load transmitted from the bolt-tightening torque. Therefore, it is important to study the mechanical behaviors of the coupling system in order to establish more accurate sealing assessment technologies. In this study, an experiment was first conducted to obtain the relationship between torque and its resulting axial force in a specially designed gage bolt. Strains were then measured when the torque was applied using the gauge bolts on the turbocharger. Thus, the magnitude of the axial force due to the bolt torque can be obtained inversely. In addition, the circumference and width strains of the turbocharger coupling were measured under the assembly load, and theses results were compared with the finite element results. As a result, they tend to be very similar, but in the ring area, analysis results show a relatively small value, and near the bolt, the analysis results are larger than the experimental strains. This is thought to be due to the reduced strains around the bolt by the hammering process.
In case vehicle system has low travel distance and short duration of engine operation, this can be relatively susceptible to engine scuffing related problem. Users also experience inconvenience in system maintenance that they have to manually start engine periodically in cold night during winter. In order to solve such problems and improve system's life cycle, the automatic engine start system is developed.
In order to develop the automatic engine start sytem for air defense system BIHO, two types of engine start sytem and the engine sub system are studied and four steps to start and control the automatic engine start system is suggested. The prototype of automatic engine start system was tested for the single assembly and vehicle-installed test and all requirement of the system was madeto prove its possible application.
The ion-beam irradiated lanthanum zinc oxide (LZO) films were conducted as liquid crystal (LC) alignment layer to achieve uniform and homogeneous alignment of LC molecules. Polarized optical microscopy and the pre-tilt angle measurements revealed the alignment characteristics of LC molecules on the LZO film surface. Physical characteristics of the LZO film surface were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy. The strong ion-beam irradiation on the LZO film changed surface rougher than before and induced physical anisotropic characteristics. Chemical composition of the LZO film was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and it was revealed that the ion-beam irradiation induced the breakage of the metal-oxide bonds. Due to this, anisotropic dipole moment which related with van der Waals force between LC molecules and alignment layer was induced. Because of this, LC molecules were anchored to the LZO film surface to achieve uniform LC alignment. Collecting the capacitance-voltage curve, residual DC of the LC cell with the LZO films was measured and it was verified that the LC cell with the LZO film had a nearly zero residual DC. Therefore, the ion-beam irradiated LZO film is an efficient method as an LC alignment layer
It has been studied that the aluminum extrusion with the ingot-recycled composite billet that is casted. The billet is composed of the inner rod with the recycled and the outer ring with the ingot aluminum. For easy producing the tensile specimens to evaluate the bonding strength between recycled and ingot material, the extrusion die was designed. Two types of the billet are extruded. One is a composite billet that is casted. The other is an assembled billet with the turned bars. The strength is measured from tensile tests with extruded specimens. The effect on the strength of the oxidized layer between the materials has been researched with EDS analysis.
When a train enters a tunnel, a pressure wave is generated. This pressure wave propagates in the tunnel and emits as micro pressure wave at the opposite tunnel exit. This pressure wave could appear as a sound pulse in a particular environment and cause hazardous effects on the environment near the tunnel exit. When planning tunnels, it is necessary to take appropriate measures to reduce the magnitude of the micro pressure wave. In this study, we investigated the existing micro pressure wave management standards and studied the signal processing method and the sound evaluation method which were used in setting the appropriate management standard for the evaluation of the micro pressure wave.
The most important role of air defense system is to attack the air target of enemy to defend the important military unit or facilities. In order to attack the target as soon as it is detected, fast and precise fire signal transfer using the fire control stick is very important. However, it was found that firing is not conducted in the test for fire control stick. In order to find the reason of such problem and improve life cycle of fire control stick, the test was conducted and it was found that chattering occurred and this led to malfunction of signal transfer from control stick to fire control unit of air defense system.
In order to draw resolution for this problem, two contact plate made of beryllium copper is suggested to add to the control stick to enhance the contact and reduce chattering effect. The four fire switch prototypes were tested for 100,000 times and it showed its reliability of use.
Contemporary people want to develop their bodies to enhance quality of life. Although weight-training machines have been mainly developed with this trend based on intuition and experience, this study attempted to improve and verify those products through computer simulations using the musculoskeletal model of the human body.
An arm-curl machine, a weight-training machine for arm exercise, was chosen for this research and the improved exercise effects were observed. The existing exercise that moves the scapula on the axis of the elbow with raised forearm is effective for biceps but not for triceps and adjacent muscles. Thus we suggested the idea for a new concept arm-curl machine that also raises the scapula after raising the forearm. To verify the effects of this new exercise, we manufactured arm-curl linkage.
The experiments found that the exercise effects of the biceps were maintained, and the exercise effects of the triceps remarkably improved. These findings verified the effects of the proposed new concept arm-curl linkage.
Microbubble is a part of advanced water treatment technologies, and there are several ways for microbubble generation. A strategy using Venturi (convergent-divergent) nozzle with air-suction holes has advantage of energy and time saving compared with the others. Here, we used 3D printer to make the various nozzle geometries in order to understand two-phase flow in the Venturi nozzle and air-breaking mechanism. It was evaluated the effects of convergent and divergent angles independently on air-suction rate and pressure drop, and the two-phase flow (air bubbles and liquid water) were observed. The convergent angle strongly affect the air-suction rate corresponding with increase of pressure drop. Meanwhile, as the divergent angle increased, it became dominant the minor loss by sudden enlargement of flow area, so that the air-suction rate and pressure drop showed decreased.
In this study, the thermal behavior characteristics of flange case interior were analyzed by the numerical method. The boundary conditions at the inlet port of flange case were the heat flux and heat flux time. As the heat flux time at inlet of case increased, the temperature values gradually increased, and the degree of increase was very small. If the heat flux of the melted iron increases to 2,000,000 W/m2, the temperature change at the case interior will occur largely, causing heat deformation. As a result, in order to reduce thermal defects at the case interior, the heat flux and heat flux time of the melted iron should be set within 500,000 W/m2 and 5 seconds, respectively.
Heat transfer and pressure drop of horizontal heat exchangers with different configurations and installations numerically characterized. Three different heat exchangers were used and shaped as linear, wavy, and horizontal slinky, respectively. Installation depth was set from 0.5m to 3.0m and pipe spacing was ranged from 0.3m to 2.1m. The results showed that heat transfer rate and pressure drop were increased with the increase in the installation depth and the pipe spacing. The horizontal slinky heat exchanger carried more heat compared to others due to the greater effective heat transfer surface area per installation area. In terms of a ratio of heat transfer rate to pressure drop indicating the system efficiency, the linear heat exchanger performed better than others. On the other hand, the horizontal slinky heat exchanger was the most effective with respect to a ratio of heat transfer rate to installation cost.