Heat transfer and pressure drop of horizontal heat exchangers with different configurations and installations numerically characterized. Three different heat exchangers were used and shaped as linear, wavy, and horizontal slinky, respectively. Installation depth was set from 0.5m to 3.0m and pipe spacing was ranged from 0.3m to 2.1m. The results showed that heat transfer rate and pressure drop were increased with the increase in the installation depth and the pipe spacing. The horizontal slinky heat exchanger carried more heat compared to others due to the greater effective heat transfer surface area per installation area. In terms of a ratio of heat transfer rate to pressure drop indicating the system efficiency, the linear heat exchanger performed better than others. On the other hand, the horizontal slinky heat exchanger was the most effective with respect to a ratio of heat transfer rate to installation cost.
The sintering characteristics of commercial 7xxx series Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy have been investigated. Sintering system of this blended elemental powder has aspects of both transient and supersolidus liquid phase sintering. Transient liquids occur when the constitution point during sintering lies in a solid phase region but where the sintering temperature is greater than either the melting point of one of the constituent or a eutectic temperature. Supersolidus liquid phase sintering occurs when a preblended powder is heated to a temperature between the solidus and liquids. However, these reaction were restrained their inter diffusion due to the appearance of the oxide film. Thus, 7xxx series Al alloy is extremely sensitive to process variables, including particle size, holding time and sintering temperature. Therefore, above phenomenons were observed formation and behaviour of the liquid by using SEM and DSC.