In this study, we examined the effect of orifice diameter on atomization performance such as SMD(Sauter Mean Diameter), MMD(Mass median diameter), particle size distribution, spray distance, and spray angle when water was sprayed through a siphon nozzle. In addition, the behavior characteristics of spray were analyzed using the CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) commercial program. In the downstream direction of the flow, the dispersion and diffusion power of the droplets increased, greatly improving atomization performance. The spray spread in the radial direction when the jet velocity of water increased. As a result, atomization performance improved as the jet velocity increased.
In this study, numerical modeling on the gas flow and off-gases in the low temperature carbonization furnace for carbon fiber was analyzed. The furnace was designed for testing carbonization process of carbon fibers made from various precursors. Nitrogen gas was used as a working gas and it was treated as an incompressible ideal gas. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics for steady state turbulent flow was used to analyze flow pattern and temperature field in the furnace. The off-gas mass fraction and cumulative emission gas of species were incorporated into the CFD analyses by using the user defined function(UDF). As a results, during the carbonization process, the emission of CO2 was the dominant among the off-gases, and tow moving made the flow in the furnace be uniform.
This study deals with improvement plans and application results to improve the safety of secondary batteries and chargers applied to Tactical Multi-band Multi-role Radio(TMMR), a new military communication equipment. Due to the nature of the portable weapon system, the terminal structure and manufacturing process of the battery and charger were improved to strengthen resistance to vibration and shock generated during movement, and the battery structure was partially changed to secure resistance to mechanical shock generated when the charger was coupled. In addition, retrospective application was completed for all secondary batteries and chargers previously delivered for TMMR, helping the Korean military to operate next-generation radios in a safer environment.
This paper studies the flow characteristics inside the low-temperature carbonization(LTF) including sealing chamber with labyrinth. The flow behavior inside the furnace was analyzed according to different labyrinth shapes. The effects of labyrinth baffle number, and clearance between upper and lower baffles in the sealing chamber were investigated. The large vortex and stagnation region are generated in the chamber when the gap between the baffle and baffle is small. As a result, the gas discharge flow rate can be increased by 29.4% when the flow space of labyrinth is made 75% of the baffle length.
In this study, gas flow pattern and temperature distribution in a laboratory scale low temperature furnace for carbonization were numerically analyzed. The furnace was designed for testing carbonization process of carbon fibers made from polyimide(PI) precursor. Nitrogen gas was used as a working gas and it was treated as an ideal gas. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis for steady state turbulent flow was used to analyze flow pattern and temperature field in the furnace. The results showed that more uniform velocity profile and axisymmetric temperature distribution could be obtained by varying mass flow rate at the inlets.
This study analyzes the internal temperature characteristics of heater module using a numerical method when the constant heat flux and heat flux time are applied to the surface heating element. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of heater module are 100mm, and the height is 5mm. The heat flux is 10,000W/m2, 15,000W/m2, and 20,000W/m2, and heat flux time is 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 15 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds and 50 seconds, respectively. When the heat flux time was 50 seconds, the temperature of the surface heating element rose to 120.5°C, while the skin epidermis temperature rose 1.7°C. As a result, the surface temperature of the surface heating element increased greatly in the horizontal direction, while it increased low in the depth direction. This is because the heat conduction of the surface heating element is transmitted in the X-Y plane direction, and the thermal conductivity of the pet(polyethylene terephthalate) film and insulation sheet under the surface heating element is very low. when the heat flux at the surface heating element is 20,000W/m2, the skin's epidermal temperature rises up to 0.82℃ compared to 10,000W/m2 and 15,000W/m2.
In this study, the shrinkage at the artificial skin tissue and temperature characteristics of rubber pole were analyzed by the experimental and numerical method. A artificial skin tissue was produced by using the rigid sponge pad. The impact of tissue was applied by three types of rubber pole. The shrinkage results along the depth of tissue were measured according to the repetition count of impact. When the shape of rubber pole was sphere type, the shrinkage was greatest. The temperature around the pole was highest in the sphere type while that inside pole was greatest in the twine deep sphere type. This is because the pole temperature of twine deep sphere type was transmitted more inside. As a result, the sphere type rubber pole was the most effective because it showed the largest shrinkage and the lowest temperature gradient during impact.
In this study, the thermal behavior characteristics of flange case interior were analyzed by the numerical method. The boundary conditions at the inlet port of flange case were the heat flux and heat flux time. As the heat flux time at inlet of case increased, the temperature values gradually increased, and the degree of increase was very small. If the heat flux of the melted iron increases to 2,000,000 W/m2, the temperature change at the case interior will occur largely, causing heat deformation. As a result, in order to reduce thermal defects at the case interior, the heat flux and heat flux time of the melted iron should be set within 500,000 W/m2 and 5 seconds, respectively.
In this study, the characteristics of muscle relaxation were analyzed by the experimental and numerical method. A skin tissue was produced by imitational biological tissue using the agar powder, saline solution and sugar. The tissue was exposed to three types of wavelength-blue visible radiation(410 nm), red visible radiation(635 nm), and infrared ray(830 nm). The temperature results along the depth of tissue were measured according to the variation of light wavelength and irradiation time. The temperature change of the tissue shown up similar pattern regardless of the light wavelength kinds. The wavelength of infrared ray penetrated strongly into tissue between 3.2 mm and 11.4 mm. Also, the temperature change with the irradiation time was small, and the temperature value of the infrared ray was the largest. As a result, the muscle relaxation will occur mainly at the infrared wavelength.
In this study, the thermal behavior of adaptor housing was analyzed by the numerical method. The boundary conditions used to die casting process were the temperature of molten metal and injection time. As the temperature of the molten metal increased, the tensile strength of the product decreased by the blow hole generated in the molten metal, and the decreasing tendency was gradually decreased. As the injection time of the molten metal increased, the heat flux rose, but the degree of the increase was very small. So, the injection time of the molten metal had little effect on the thermal behavior and diffusion of the adapter housing. As a result, the heat of the molten metal was transferred into the housing and the thermal behavior spread widely.
In this study, we analyzed the radiant heat performance of ballast fin when the aspect ratio of the fin of ballast was changed. The minimum size of the mesh was 0.02 mm, and the grid number was about more than 11 thousand. In order to analyze the radiant heat performance of ballast fin, the aspect ratio of fin was 1.00(2 mm:2 mm), 1.80(1.5 mm:2.7 mm), and 0.56(2.7 mm:1.5 mm) respectively; that the heat transfer area was constantly 0.4 mm 2 . The numerical condition was that heat flux was constantly 1×10 5 W/m 2 , and measuring times were 0.1 second, 0.2 second, 0.5 second, 2 seconds, 5 seconds and 10 seconds respectively. The temperature values of fin at the 1.00 and 1.80 of aspect ratios were extremely large when heat flux time was 10 seconds. As a result, the maximum value of radiant heat performance of ballast fin appeared to the aspect ratio of 1.80.
In this study, we designed the 3-dimensional tire mold according to the A automobile company’s tire model, and analysed the distribution of temperature of mold using the numerical method when the heat flux and heat transfer time at the surface of tire mold were changed. A analysis region of mold was the 1/16 of entire mold, and the grid number was about more than 880 thousand. In order to analyze the temperature change of mold, the thinnest part of the mold was chosen as the research object, and then the temperature of 6 points on the vertical downward direction of the thinnest part was analyzed with the time change. While the numerical condition was that heat flux was 321,200 W/m2, 440,000 W/m2 and 880,000 W/m2, and measuring time was 0.1 second, 0.2 second, 0.5 second and 1 second, respectively. As a result, the temperature difference between the surface temperature and the lowest temperature of mold was 7.3℃ when the heat transfer time was 0.1 second. Also, the minimum temperature difference was almost 0.11℃ when the heat transfer increased to 1 second. It can be explained that the main material of tire mold was aluminum and its thermal conductivity was high (k=140 W/m·K). In addition, when the heat transfer time was more than 1 second, the heat flux of mold surface will be transmitted at the inside of the thinnest part, and the heat transfer will be a marked difference according to the shape of the thinnest part.
This paper analyzed air temperatures at outlet according to condition of absorber plate of the solar air heater. Effects on air temperature at outlet of duct according to absorber plate temperature were analyzed by using numerical analysis technique. And also the effects on air temperatures at outlet were analysed by the height and position of absorber plate. As the results, air temperatures at outlet of duct was small influenced in velocity 5 m/s of inlet according to absorber plate temperature. And the highest outlet average temperature distribution appeared at the height of 2 cm and the bottom absorber plate of duct at the inlet aspect ratio 2.