The demand for LNG Carrier and LNG fuel ships are increasing due to global carbon neutrality declaration and ship emissions regulation of IMO, domestic shipyards pay technology fees(about 5~10% of ship price per vessel) to GTT company in France for making LNG cargo hold. Localization of LNG cargo hold is needed to reduce technology fees and engage technological competitiveness, it is important to secure the critical technology like automation process development of insulation system process. Especially, the automation rate of membrane-type insulation system is very low due to interference caused by corrugation and difficulty in securing optimal variable welding condition. In this study, to solve this problem, automatic welding is performed using developed automatic welding equipment on STS304L steel which is used in flat and corner area of membrane-type LNG cargo hold's lap joint. After welding, Cross-sectional observations and Tensile strength tests were conducted to evaluate reliability of equipment and welding condition. As a result of the test, it was confirmed that the strength of the welded zone exceeded that of base material, and secured the optimal welding condition to apply automatic welding.
The need for lightweight yet strong materials is being demanded in all industries. Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic is a material with increased strength by attaching carbon fiber to plastic, and is widely used in the aerospace industry, ships, automobiles, and civil engineering based on its low density. Carbon-reinforced fiber plastic is a material widely used in parts and manufactured products, and structural analysis simulation is required during design, and application of actual material properties is necessary for accurate structural analysis simulation. In the case of carbon-reinforced fiber plastics, it is reported that there is a porosity of around 0.5% to 6%, and it is necessary to check the change in material properties according to the porosity and pore shape. It was confirmed by applying the method. It was confirmed that the change in elastic modulus according to the porosity was 10.7% different from the base material when the porosity was 6.0%, and the Poisson's ratio was confirmed to be less than 3.0%. It was confirmed that the elliptical spherical pore derived different material properties from the spherical pore depending on the pore shape, and it was confirmed that the shape of the pore had to be confirmed to derive equivalent material properties.
In order to respond to environmental pollution, developed countries, including Korea, have begun to conduct research to utilize hydrogen energy. For mass transfer of hydrogen energy, storage as liquid hydrogen is advantageous, and in this case, the volume can be reduced to 1/800. As such, the transportation technology of liquefied hydrogen for ships is expected to be needed in the near future, but there is no commercialized method yet. This study is a study on the technology to test the performance of the components constituting the membrane type storage container in a cryogenic environment as a preparation for the above. It is a study to find a way to respond by analyzing in advance the problems that may occur during the shear test of adhesives. Through this study, the limitations of ISO4587 were analyzed, and in order to cope with this, the specimen was supplemented so that fracture occurred in the adhesive, not the adhesive gripper, by using stainless steel, a low-temperature steel, to reinforce the thickness. Based on this, shear evaluation was performed under conditions lowered to minus 243℃, and it was confirmed that the breaking strength was higher at cryogenic temperatures.
Demand for research on the use of hydrogen, an eco-friendly fuel, is rapidly increasing in accordance with global environmental problems and IMO environmental regulations in the shipbuilding and marine industry. In the case of hydrogen, similar to liquefied natural gas, it has a characteristic that its volume decreases hundreds of times during phase transformation from gas to liquid, so it must be stored in a tank in the form of liquefied hydrogen for transport efficiency. The material of the liquid hydrogen tank is selected in consideration of mechanical properties and hydrogen embrittlement at cryogenic temperatures. In this study, welding research was conducted on STS316L material, which was most commonly used in the space industry. In this study, flux cored arc welding was performed under 4 welding conditions to derive the optimal welding conditions for STS316L material, and then mechanical properties of the welded part were compared and analyzed.
Welding is a representative processing technology applied in many industrial sites due to its quality and convenience. In particular, fiber laser welding can be welded at a faster speed compared to arc welding, and there is an advantage in welding distortion, which is the most significant disadvantage of welding. In this study, the weldable thickness was predicted, and the optimal welding angle was estimated using simulations during the welding of the T-shape structure. The multi-layer heat source model proposed in the previous author's study was used, and the study was conducted using the proposed welding heat source under specific conditions of 4kw and 1.0m/min. As a result, it was predicted that high-quality welding would be possible when the thickness was 3mm or 4mm, and it was also confirmed that welding should be performed at an angle of 82.5° or more when welding a 3mm thick structure. As a follow-up study, we plan to build a welding heat source model under various conditions and conduct a study to derive welding conditions at various thicknesses.
A heat exchanger refers to a pressure vessel that indirectly exchanges heat between low-temperature/ high-temperature fluids with a solid wall interposed therebetween, and a shell-and-tube cylindrical heat exchanger is generally applied. The shell-and-tube cylindrical heat exchanger is widely used in ships and there is a problem in that the welding area is narrow and welding defects occur a lot due to high-level welding. In particular, in the case of a ship heat exchanger, if a problem occurs in the welding part during operation, the possibility of a safety accident is high, and repair is not easy. In this study, to solve this problem, the GTAW(Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) method was applied to secure the optimum conditions for pipe welding of STS304 material with a thickness of 5.5mm and to conduct a test. Afterwards, in accordance with the ASME rules, welding performance was verified through cross-sectional observation of welds, mechanical property tests, (tensile strength, bending strength, cryogenic impact strength) and non-destructive testing(PT, RT).
9% nickel steel has remarkable mechanical properties in a cryogenic condition and is widely used in storage containers for LNG fueled ships. Demand for laser welding rather than conventional arc welding has grown to increase manufacturing efficiency. However there are various types of heat sources which are suggested by other researchers. With that, it is difficult to select a proper heat source shape for welding conditions. The author proposed a representative heat source model that can cover most of suggested heat source models through previous studies. Welding power was fixed at 4kW and the speed was changed to 1.0m/min, 1.5m/min, and 2.0m/min respectively. The shapes of the welding heat sources were derived, and the tendency of the main parameters was also deducted. It was observed that the width and depth of the weld bead decreased as the welding speed increased through welding experiment, parameters of welding heat source are changed linearly. Based on this study, it is expected that it will be possible to estimate the shape of the heat source under untested welding conditions.
Environmental regulations of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) are getting stricter, and the demand for replacing the fuel of ships with eco-friendly fuels instead of heavy oil in the shipbuilding and marine industries is increasing. Among eco-friendly fuels, LNG (liquefied natural gas) is currently the most popular fuel. This is because it is an alternative that can avoid the IMO's environmental regulations by replacing fuel. In PART 1, as a basic study of laser welding of high manganese steel materials, a fiber laser bead-on-plate experiment was conducted using nitrogen protective gas, and the effect of each factor on the penetration shape was analyzed through cross-sectional observation. In PART II, argon and helium shielding gases, not the nitrogen shielding gas used in PART I, were tested under the same experimental conditions and the effect of the shielding gas on penetration during laser welding was conducted.
Environmental regulations of the IMO (International Maritime Organization) are becoming more and more conservative. In order to respond to IMO, the demand for replacing the fuel of ships with eco-friendly fuels instead of conventional heavy oil is increasing in the shipbuilding and offshore industries. Among eco-friendly fuels, LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) is currently the most popular fuel. LNG is characteristically liquefied at -163 degrees, and at this time, its volume is reduced to 1/600, so it is transported in a cryogenic liquefied state for transport efficiency. A tank for storing this should have sufficient mechanical/thermal performance at cryogenic temperatures, and among them, high manganese steel is known as a material with high price competitiveness and satisfying these performance. However, high manganese steel has a limitation in that the mechanical performance of the filler metal is lower than that of the base metal called ‘under matching’. In this study, to overcome this limitation, a basic study was conducted to apply the fiber laser welding method without filler metal to high manganese steel. To obtain efficient welding conditions, in this study, bead-on-plate welding was performed by changing the fiber laser welding speed and output using helium shielding gas, and the effect of each factor on the penetration shape was analyzed through cross-sectional observation.
Due to the environmental regulations of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the number of ships using cryogenic fuel such as LNG (liquefied natural gas) is increasing rapidly, and the demand for eco-friendly ships is expected to grow further in the future. The material of the tank for storing cryogenic fuel such as LNG is limited within the IGC Code, and available materials include 9% nickel steel, Invar (36% nickel steel), Al5083-0, STS304L, and high manganese steel. Recently, 9% nickel steel has been used as a tank in LNG fuel-powered ship projects, and it has excellent thermal/mechanical properties in cryogenic LNG environmental conditions (-163°C). In this study, it is conducted an experimental study on SAW(Submerged Arc welding), which has better welding efficiency than FCAW(Flux Cored Arc Welding), which is mainly used for 9% nickel steel materials. In addition, to verify the reliability of the welded part after the welding test, cross-sectional observation of the welded part was performed and the mechanical properties such as the tensile strength and cryogenic impact strength of the welded part were evaluated.
This study aimed to elucidate the architectural characteristics of the cathedral architecture of the Archdiocese of Gwangju, which was completed in the period of liberation and turbulence, and the conclusions are as follows. Gwangju Archdiocese Cathedral, completed during the period of liberation and turbulence, was built with some assistance from the U.S. military or with the efforts of the faithful, and there are a number of factors such as space directing by Aps, the development of a simplified bell tower, the appearance of a stone cathedral, the application of a quenset structure, and an increase in size. show special features The indented apse appears only after liberation, and is a characteristic that appears prominently in stone churches. The simplified form in which the bell was hung by raising the outer wall appeared in the early church shows a change in the composition with a porch in front. The stone church and the quanset-structured church only appeared after liberation and were built only in the 1950s. The size of the cathedral reflects the increase in the number of believers after the Korean War, and the average area is about 1.5 times higher than before liberation. When considering the spacing of the bays as a module, the size plan followed the implicit norm of early cathedral architecture of 36.5m, but gradually decreased to 2.7m and 2.4m.
Conversion to modern hydrogen energy is required, and research on liquefied hydrogen cargo containment systems is needed for large-capacity transport and storage. In this study, changes in the mechanical properties of the adhesive required for storage and transport in liquid hydrogen were confirmed. The lap shear test was performed by realizing cryogenic conditions in a small chamber using liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. There was an increase of 11.0% in the -180℃ condition compared to room temperature, and an increase of 1.8% in the -230℃ condition compared to the -180℃ condition was confirmed. In the case of shear strain, it is known that it decreases as the temperature goes down. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that the value at room temperature and the value at -180℃ reduced the shear strain by 5.0%, and -230˚ compared to the -180℃ condition. An increase of 1.5% was confirmed in the C condition. In the case of the specimen tested at -230℃, the deformation in the gripper part was larger than in other tests, and it is judged that the maximum shear strength and shear strain were affected. In addition, in this study, there is a limitation in the experiment at -230°C rather than 253°C, which is the boiling point of hydrogen
In modern times, where problems due to environmental pollution are continuously occurring, hydrogen is in the spotlight as the energy of the future. Hydrogen is an eco-friendly energy resource that does not even generate CO2, and is actively supporting research to utilize hydrogen energy at the national level. This study is a study on the cryogenic mechanical properties of the elements constituting the cargo hold during the transportation of liquid hydrogen. Among the various components, the evaluation of mechanical properties of the cryogenic adhesive under liquid helium conditions was confirmed. The related contents are summarized as follows. As a result of performing SSRT by curing the adhesive, it was confirmed that tensile strength and maximum strain were increased at cryogenic temperature (-230°C) compared to room temperature (25°C). It was confirmed that the adhesive-hardened specimen showed a brittle fracture mode at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature during tensile. Improvements in this study, such as pores occurring during adhesive curing, the use of standard specimens, and experiments at -253°C, the boiling point of hydrogen, exist, and are planned to be carried out in subsequent studies.
Hydrogen is one of the main candidates in replacing fossil fuels in the forthcoming years. However, hydrogen technologies must deal with safety aspects due to the specific sub�stance properties. This study aims to provide an overview on the loss of mechanical properties of cryogenic materials, which may lead to serious consequences, such as fires and explosions. The hydrogen embrittlement of cryogenic steels was investigated through slow strain rate tensile tests (SSRTs) and thermal desorption analyses of electrochemically H-charged specimens. As a prior study to confirm mechanical properties under liquid hydrogen conditions, the amount of diffusive hydrogen that causes hydrogen embrittlement was confirmed after charging hydrogen using an electrochemical method for 4 types of steel materials applied as cryogenic materials did. When exposed to the same hydrogen charging conditions, the amount of hydrogen diffused into the 9% nickel steel is the highest compared to the austenitic steel type. It is considered that this is because the diffusion and integration of hydrogen into the interior is easy. It is necessary to analyze the relationship between hydrogen loading and mechanical properties, and this will be carried out in a follow-up study.
Due to global warming and environmental pollution, environmental regulations are getting stronger, and the International Maritime Organization announced regulations to reduce CO2 emissions in 2018. In order to respond to this, interest in hydrogen energy is growing, and research on liquid hydrogen is spotlighted for storage and transport of large amounts of hydrogen. Hydrogen reduces in volume to 1/800 when liquefied, but its boiling point is close to absolute zero(-253°C), and hydrogen embrittlement that penetrates other materials and weakens mechanical properties. In this study, the change of mechanical properties under cryogenic conditions (-196 degrees below zero) was confirmed after charging hydrogen into existing cryogenic materials (Stainless steel, High Manganese steel, 9% Nickel steel). In Part I, hydrogen was charged using an electrochemical method and quantitative evaluation was performed. In all four materials, as the changing time increased, the diffusible hydrogen concentration increased. After 24 hours charging, the hydrogen loading of 20 wppm in 9% Ni steel and 15 wppm in high-Mn steel was confirmed. In a follow-up study, we plan to study the effect of hydrogen charging by comparing the results of the mechanical properties test with the above results.
Due to the strengthening of domestic and international environmental regulations, the replacement of FRP ships with aluminum ships for small ships is continuously in progress. Domestic aluminum ships are being applied to various types of ships, mainly special ships, passenger ships and fishing ships. Gas metal arc welding(GMAW) is used as a welding method when manufacturing ships using aluminum materials for ships with a thickness of 5mm or more. However, it is carried out manually by the workers in the shipyard, and there is a limit to relying on the skills of the workers. In this study, basic research on high-efficiency tandem welding was performed as a basic study for the application of high-quality automatic welding equipment when working on aluminum ships. In this study, welding deformation according to constraint conditions was comparatively analyzed using tandem welding equipment and cross-sections of welds were evaluated for each experiment.
Due to stricter environmental regulations of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the number of ships fueled by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is rapidly increasing. The International Code of the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code) limits the material of tanks that can store cryogenic substances such as LNG. Among the materials listed in the IGC Code, ASTM A553M-17 has been recently adopted as a material for LNG fuel tank projects because of its excellent mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. In shipyards, this material is being used to build tanks through Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW). However, there is a problem that magnetization occurs during welding and there is a big difference in welding quality depending on the welding position. In order to overcome this problem, this study intends to conduct basic research to apply laser welding to ASTM A553M-17 material. As a result of analyzing the bead shape according to laser BOP speed and Energy density performed in this study, it was confirmed that the penetration and energy density are proportional but the penetration and BOP speed are inverse proportional to some extent. In addition, a range of suitable welding speed and energy density were proposed for the 6.1mm thickness material performed in this study.
Due to stricter environmental regulations of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the number of ships fueled by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is rapidly increasing. The International Code of the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code) limits the material of tanks that can store cryogenic substances such as LNG. Among the materials listed in the IGC Code, ASTM A553M-17 has been recently adopted as a material for LNG fuel tank projects because of its excellent mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. In shipyards, this material is being used to build tanks through Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW). However, there is a problem that magnetization occurs during welding and there is a big difference in welding quality depending on the welding position. In order to overcome this problem, this study intends to conduct basic research to apply laser welding to ASTM A553M-17 material. In Part I, the bead shape according to the welding output was analyzed and in PART II, the penetration phenomenon according to the welding speed was analyzed after Bead on Plate (BOP) test. As a result of analyzing the bead shape according to laser power performed in this study, it was confirmed that the laser power and penetration depth are proportional to some extent. In addition, a range of suitable welding power was proposed for the 6.1mm thickness material performed in this study.
Because of the International Maritime Organization(IMO)'s regulation to regulate emissions of ships, a change is taking place to replace ship fuels from Heavy Fule Oil(HFO) to Liquefied Natural Gas(LNG). In the case of LNG, it is a material obtained by liquefying Natural Gas(NG), and it is -163 degrees below zero, and the volume is reduced to 1/600 level. The material of the tank that can store LNG must be a material that can safely store LNG in a cryogenic environment, and the materials of the tank that can store LNG are limited in the International Code of the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk(IGC Code). Among the materials listed in the IGC Code, 9% nickel steel is used as a material for LNG fuel propulsion tanks that are recently ordered because of relatively high mechanical properties under cryogenic environments. In this study, the mechanical properties of butt welds were measured following the weld reliability evaluation of Flux Cored Arc Welding(FCAW) butt welds made of 9% nickel steel by PARTI. The measured mechanical properties are tensile strength, bending strength, hardness, and cryogenic impact test required by the classification for Welding Procedure Specification(WPS) approval.
Because of the International Maritime Organization(IMO)'s regulation to regulate emissions of ships, a change is taking place to replace ship fuels from Heavy Fule Oil(HFO) to Liquefied Natural Gas(LNG). In the case of LNG, it is a material obtained by liquefying Natural Gas(NG), and it is -163 degrees below zero, and the volume is reduced to 1/600 level. The material of the tank that can store LNG must be a material that can safely store LNG in a cryogenic environment, and the materials of the tank that can store LNG are limited in the International Code of the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk(IGC Code). Among the materials listed in the IGC Code, 9% nickel steel is used as a material for LNG fuel propulsion tanks that are recently ordered because of relatively high mechanical properties under cryogenic environments. In this study, butt welding was performed on a 9% nickel steel material using Flux Cored Arc Welding(FCAW), the most widely used welding method in shipyards. In PARTI, after securing the welding conditions, cross-sectional observation results analysis, liquid penetrating test, and radiographic test were performed to verify the reliability of the weld.