The purpose of this study is to use the hybrid steam-solvent process, because it is created in the form of water, bitumen, and water/bitumen emulsion by hot steam, so effective separation is required. Methods for separating the emulsion include a chemical separation method by adding a chemical, a separation method using an electrostatic property, a separation method using a membrane, a separation method using a microwave, and the like. Among them, the most used method is the separation method using a chemical, and it is reported that the separation efficiency of the emulsion is the best. In this study, a method for efficiently separating bitumen emulsions using a chemical separation method adding an emulsifier was investigated. In particular, technological trends in oil sand oil treatment technology were analyzed based on patent analysis.
Environmental regulations of the IMO (International Maritime Organization) are becoming more and more conservative. In order to respond to IMO, the demand for replacing the fuel of ships with eco-friendly fuels instead of conventional heavy oil is increasing in the shipbuilding and offshore industries. Among eco-friendly fuels, LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) is currently the most popular fuel. LNG is characteristically liquefied at -163 degrees, and at this time, its volume is reduced to 1/600, so it is transported in a cryogenic liquefied state for transport efficiency. A tank for storing this should have sufficient mechanical/thermal performance at cryogenic temperatures, and among them, high manganese steel is known as a material with high price competitiveness and satisfying these performance. However, high manganese steel has a limitation in that the mechanical performance of the filler metal is lower than that of the base metal called ‘under matching’. In this study, to overcome this limitation, a basic study was conducted to apply the fiber laser welding method without filler metal to high manganese steel. To obtain efficient welding conditions, in this study, bead-on-plate welding was performed by changing the fiber laser welding speed and output using helium shielding gas, and the effect of each factor on the penetration shape was analyzed through cross-sectional observation.
This paper is about structural, and vibration analysis for the development of Index chucks Structural and vibration analyses were performed using the ANSYS Mechanical program to evaluate the Index chuck's structural stability and vibration characteristics. As a analysis result, when the maximum load of 500N was applied to the Index chuck, the safety factors were 2.06, 2.09, and 2.60, respectively, when the thickness was 5mm, and the outer diameters were 70mm, 90mm, and 120mm, respectively. Structurally safe results were obtained. In addition, under load conditions of 300 N or less, structural safety was confirmed if the thickness is 3mm or more.
Hydro-forming technology is a technology that will replace the existing press-forming technology and is used in various industry range from automotive parts to electronic products. The advantage of this technology is that it has dramatically changed the existing processing method, and it can be said that the process reduction due to the reduction of parts, cost reduction, and high precision are mentioned. In this study, it is intended to present a design process using computer simulation by changing the sub-frame for automotive parts produced with the existing press forming technology to the hide-forming method. To this end, it is intended to use it as part design data by comparatively analyzing the cross-sectional shape and thickness reduction, which are the major factors necessary to determine the successful development of the developed parts.
As laser welding has low thermal distortion and fast welding speed, the needs in the field is increasing in varous industries. Prediction of distortion and design with that prediction are very important for using welding process in the field. However many types of heat source models for laser welding are suggested, field engineers feels difffucult for using a proper model for a specific case. Thus I, author, suggested a representative model which can cover most of existing models with multi-layered heat source model. This method is very powerful, but there are much time consumption with analysis and comparision among more than 1,000 candidates. To solve these shortcomings, this study focused on to find the simplified model. In order to construct the simplified model, the length of the orthogonal direction to the welding direction was reduced from 300mm to 35mm, which makes time reduction of 75% with sustaining the quality of the original model. That can cover the disadvantage of multi-layered heat source model for laser welding, enhance the prediction of welding distortion after laser welding
Future autonomous vehicles need to recognize the ego lanes required for lane change and the side left and right lanes differently. Therefore, multi-lane recognition is needed. In this study, using the YOLO network, mainly used for object recognition, the proposed method recognizes the ego, left and right side lanes as different objects and identifies the correct lanes. As a result of the performance evaluation on the TuSimple test data, the proposed method recognized the ego lanes and the left and right side lanes differently. It showed very stable lane recognition results. And by detecting lanes that do not exist in the ground truth of TuSimple data, the proposed method is very robust in lanes detection. Nevertheless, studies related to learning data reinforcement in which lanes are located in the center or at the left and right edges of the image and accurate network learning for lanes are needed.
Bellows product is an important part in the area of plant engineering, shipbuilding and petrochemistry. For safety and durability it is necessary to consider lots of factors when designing it. This research developed a metal bellows design software based on EJMA 10th Edition manual. This Bellows software was developed by using Excel software and can be able to design U type of bellows which are Unreinforced Single Bellows, Unreinforced Double Bellows, Reinforced Single Bellows and Reinforced Double Bellows. The already proven bellows model were designed to verify this software. This software would predict the life cycle of a product and produce a company report to be provided to the demanding company. This suggested updated software will be helpful for design engineers to save time and effort.
The new & renewable energy including solar heat has been widely used to reduce the fossil fuel. Air-heating collector of solar heat is usually known as technology that supplies the hot air to indoor room. However, this study aims to investigate the possibility of cold room by air-heating collector of solar heat. The thermal flow in cold room was simulated using ANSYS-CFX program and thus the behaviors of cold air were evaluated with standard k-ε turbulence model. As the results, there was space in indoor room not showing cooling effect in case that both inlet and outlet were installing at bottom. Inlet temperature showed greater cooling effect than inlet velocity. Furthermore it was confirmed that the location and the temperature, respectively, capable of cooling indoor room could be predicted by changing the attached position of inlet and outlet.
One of the most important problems in the cutting process of CFRP is tool wear. During CFRP machining, high temperature caused by friction between the cutting tool and the carbon fiber structure increase tool edge wear. Since CFRP is manufactured in a form in which the fibrous tissue is combined with a bonding resin, delamination caused by the separation of the resin and carbon fiber during process is recognized as a very big problem. This delamination proceeds very rapidly as the wear of the drill edge increases. Therefore, in this experiment, tool wear was measured during drilling using a TiAlN-coating drill with excellent wear resistance. In this study, tool wear is measured to suggest optimized cutting conditions for each material.
The role of QR Code robots in smart logistics is great. Cognitive robots, such as logistics robots, were mostly used to adjust routes and search for peripheral sensors, cameras, and recognition signs attached to walls. However, recently, the ease of making QR Codes and the convenience of producing and attaching a lot of information within QR Codes have been raised, and many of these reasons have made QR Codes recognizable as visions and others. In addition, there have been cases in developed countries and Korea that control several of these robots at the same time and operate logistics factories smartly. This representative case is the KIVA robot in Amazon. KIVA robots are only operated inside Amazon, but information about them is not exposed to the outside world, so a variety of similar robots are developed and operated in several places around the world. They are applied in various fields such as education, medical, silver, military, parking, construction, marine, and agriculture, creating a variety of application robots. In this work, we are developing a robot that can recognize its current position, move and control in the directed direction through two-dimensional QR Codes with the same horizontal and vertical sides, and the error is to create a QR Code robot with accuracy to reach within 3mm. This paper focuses on the driving control of indoor mobile robot during the development of QR Code-aware indoor mobility robots.
In this research, the dynamics equations for a demolition fire vehicle were formulated. This was done by developing an interface that allows co-simulation using ADAMS and MATHEMATICA. In this study, MATHEMATICA alone was used to calculate the constrained dynamics equations, to demonstrate the impact force and the constraint Jacobian of the end-effector as any desired location through the x, y and z axes. Then we mathematically derived a model for a unilaterally constrained multi-link. Assumptions about the fire demolition vehicle of the constraint coordinate and the impact issues of the model are discussed in the next sections. The estimation procedure for the dynamics equation showed good approximation results in terms of solving a reaching task problem.
This study described a way of developing a resin for deviceizing quantum dots. Furthermore, the following conclusions were obtained by developing light curable syrup and UV curable syrup. First, The viscosity of the mixed resin decreased as the content of the diluent increased, and the value was bewteen 4,310 and 1,473cps. Second, haze was measured by using NDH 5000, and all of the synthesized syrups were obtained a haze value of 1% or less with a transmittance of 95% or more in the visible light region. Third, the viscosity of the mixed resin decreased as the temperature increased, and at this point, the viscosity showed a value of 4,219 to 1,128cps. Lastly, As a result of measuring the viscosity of the resin before and after mixing the quantum dot nanoparticles, it appears to be little change.
Recently, due to the rapid increase in vehicle accidents, research on improving seat belts and restraint system are being actively on going to solve the problems in vehicle for passengers. The characteristics of lap belt load and pelvic displacement were simulated through MADYMO program using Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy to analyze the submarining by changing the collision speed and seat back angle by applying the forward collision pulse form accident scenario. As a result, the submarining occurred when the seat-back angle was 60° or higher at the collision speed of 50km/h or higher. Lastly, using the characteristics of the lap belt load and pelvic displacement when the anti-submarining belt (ANSB) system adapted, the pelvic displacement was reduced as well as submarining.
Structural characteristics have been analyzed for gear system in a commercial iron bending machine which is widely used at many building construction sites. This complicated gear system in the bending machine is fundamental power transfer unit from electrical motors, and it is composed of various configuration structure including various spur and helical gear assembly. Main structural characteristics of the gear system such as stress and deformation distributions are predicted with numerical simulation of FEM method for various operating conditions of torque and rotation speed. Results show that there is large deformation in lower region of driving gear, and high stress near those contact area which is greatly affected by motor torque. These results can be applied for the design improvement of efficient gear system in the iron bar bending machine.
Heavy bitumen scattered in the underground sedimentary layer is a kind of unconventional energy source, and by extracting it, a production well is excavated in the sedimentary layer and high-temperature and high-pressure steam is injected to reduce the viscosity of bitumen and recover it to the ground steam assisted method is applied. As a recovery method that uses the steam effect of the dilution effect of solvent injection, it is a recovery method that can increase thermal efficiency. In this study, the process system of the central processing facility(CPF) of the hybrid steam-solvent recovery method that injects solvent into the existing steam assisted method was analyzed, and the core facilities for each process were identified, and hybrid steam-solvent recovery compared to the existing steam assisted method. In the case of the method, it was evaluated that the amount of steam supply and all utility costs decreased according to the solvent injection.
EPS(Electric Power Steeing) has been a popular system in the automotive industry since 2000 after the technology and safety was validated. The Korean Refrigerated Carts like Hankook Yogurt Coco was developed for the first time in the world. However this carts system and other small tranporting carts has no EPS. Thus the drivers of carts needed a EPS to avoid the burden when steeing a big weighted cart with 750Kgf as many women drivers complain the pain on their shoulders. This paper describes the application of EPS on Korean refrigerated carts with simulation results and experimental data shows the improvement of steering efforts.
Laser welding is used in various industries due to fast welding speed, and prediction with FEM is needed to design. The multi-layered heat source model that can cover various models has been recently proposed to analyze laser welding, but it takes a lot of time because more than 2,000 cases are compared to derive the results. In order to reduce the time, the simplified model should be suggested. In order to derive a simplified model, laser welding heat transfer analysis was performed using the welding direction length and the convection coefficient of the welding direction surface as parameters. As a result, the model whose difference is less than 0.1% compared to reference model is deducted. The analysis time was reduced by about 90% from 48 hours to 5 hours. Also difference of convection coefficient on the welding direction surface does not affect the temperature distribution much.
Environmental regulations of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) are getting stricter, and the demand for replacing the fuel of ships with eco-friendly fuels instead of heavy oil in the shipbuilding and marine industries is increasing. Among eco-friendly fuels, LNG (liquefied natural gas) is currently the most popular fuel. This is because it is an alternative that can avoid the IMO's environmental regulations by replacing fuel. In PART 1, as a basic study of laser welding of high manganese steel materials, a fiber laser bead-on-plate experiment was conducted using nitrogen protective gas, and the effect of each factor on the penetration shape was analyzed through cross-sectional observation. In PART II, argon and helium shielding gases, not the nitrogen shielding gas used in PART I, were tested under the same experimental conditions and the effect of the shielding gas on penetration during laser welding was conducted.
The sub-frame is located on the lower body of a monocoque type vehicle and serves as an engine and suspension, and is an important object part that receives a lot of load. The existing press-type sub-frame has a large number of parts for assembling, which causes an increase in cost. Changing the machining form of this part from the existing press-type machining method to the hydro-forming machining method has the advantage of reducing the cost and weight at the same time due to the reduction of the process. Therefore, in this study, the purpose of this study is to change the design so that the sub-frame of the existing press type can be changed to the hydro-forming process method. To this end, we intend to present a design method by analyzing the effect on the rigidity of the sub-frame using the existing machining method through shape optimization analysis.
As the demand for appropriate heat dissipation measures to improve product stability and performance continues to increase and product design becomes highly integrated, research to improve heat transfer performance while maintaining the same area or size is required. In this study, the sample-shaped aluminum plate was treated as upper-coating, and the thickness of the coating was divided into 1mm, 2mm, and 3mm, respectively, and the coating material was applied with silver, copper, and graphene. The temperature condition of the heat source was set to 473K, and heat dissipation analysis was performed under natural convection. The thermal performance was compared and analyzed through temperature distribution, flow velocity distribution, and heat flux, and it was confirmed that the high thermal conductivity of graphene compared to other materials had a dominant effect on the increase in the conduction heat transfer rate. And it was confirmed that the high surface temperature of the graphene coating also increased the heat transfer rate by convection, thereby enhancing the heat dissipation effect.