This study investigates the noise characteristics of small DC motors and applies them to the production line of small DC motors to qualify. Because currently the noise and vibration are greatly reduced due to vibration reduction technology and sound insulation technology of engine and transmission development. For this reason, the noise and vibration problems of various small DC motors that have not been heard before are emerging. For this purpose, noise characteristics of good and bad products of company A and B which are most used at present are analyzed and noise characteristics are investigated.
In order to apply rotary atomizer to agricultural spraying system, the motor direct coupled rotary atomizer was proposed. The effect of operating conditions such as atomizing air flow rate, working fluid flow rate, and rotation speed of spinning cup on the atomization performance was investigated for the proposed direct coupled rotary atomizer. The motor speed was controlled in the range of 6,000 to 12,000 rpm using an alternating current transformer, and the atomizing air was supplied by the compressor. In this study, LDPA was used to analyze the spray characteristics of the rotary atomizer. The representative particle diameters of D10, SMD, MMD, D90, and DMax tended to decrease as the atomizing air flow rate and the motor speed increased, but increased as the working fluid flow rate increased. Also, SMD was found to be influenced by order of atomizing air flow rate> motor speed> working fluid flow rate, and DMax was influenced by order of operating fluid supply> motor speed> atomizing air flow rate.
In this research, we evaluate on the disassemblability of recycling process for vehicle front door using the symbolic chart method and machine-learning algorithm. It is applied to the front door of 1600cc class vehicle, and then the conventional steel door and CFRP door were compared. Based on the principle symbolic chart method, the number of processes can be different according to decomposer proficiency of suitability of recycling process, so the evaluation method is required to supply this issue. The machine learning algorithm, and artificial intelligence method were applied and the applicable tools for each experiment were used to compensate the variations in the number of processes according to different proficiencies. Because CFRP front door has integrated components compare to steel door, so its disassemblability processes were decreased to 80 from 103 of the conventional steel door’s. It can be confirmed that the disassemblability was increased from the suitability of recycling equation. In case of the steel, disassemblability was approximately 60.6, in case of the CFRP is approximately 72 for car front door. Therefore, it can be concluded that the disassemblability of CFRP was better in the evaluation of suitability of recycling.
A commercial CFD code is used to caculate the 3-D viscous flow field within the centrifugal pump impeller. Design conditions are changed by pump inlet diameter(203.2㎜) and pump outlet diameter(152.4㎜). Numerical calculation was performed by changing flow rate from 7 to 12m 3 /min. Working fluids are clean water and muddy water. The viscosity of muddy water is measured by the unsteady capillary of the viscometer. The pump performance is predicted well through the computer simulation. The results are summarized as follows: the pump characteristics of the total pressure, efficiency and shaft power with high viscosity fluids by muddy water was different from those clean water. When the viscosity of the applied fluid increased, the total pressure, and efficiency more decreased than those of clean water. The decreasing gradients of the total pressure and the efficiency were larger than water due to the increased disk friction losses at the duty operation point. The shaft power of clean water and muddy water increased. This study shows that the calculated results agree well with the analysis results of design condition.
Gas burner has been widely utilized to many industrial fields and personal outdoor activities and so on. Portable small-sized gas burner is, especially, useful in personal outdoor activities. The performance and safety of portable small-sized gas burner is important because it uses gas as fuel. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibilities of performance improvement of portable small-sized gas burner through flow and structural analysis, respectively. As the results, it showed that mass fraction of butane gas in all cases(Type 1, Type 2, Type 3) was about 12~18% and further safety load of 3 stand leg was below 10 kgf.
Recently, the demand of wire quality improvement has been increasing due to the development of the textile market, and the demand for round type flat wire having superior performance compared to the existing reed wire is also increasing greatly. The round wire requires equal spacing and precise alignment of the wire at reed knitting. So, there is a need for a method for measuring the flatness of Reed in real time. In this paper, it is shown how the contact and non - contact methods for the flatness of Reed used in a power loom are easy to measure in real - time process. The contact-type method provides excellent measurement accuracy and precision because it directly touches the object. The non-contact type does not touch the object, so it does not scratch the surface, and the result can be obtained faster than the contact type. Contact type measuring device was used as contact type and laser displacement sensor was used as non - contact type. It was confirmed that the measurement method using the laser displacement sensor (non-contact type) is suitable for the real time process.
This study discussed the effects of inclined interface location to apply the design of inclined interface of composite materials subjected to shear loading. The fracture parameters are analyzed by finite element method of ANSYS. As a results, If in case of the angle of inclination is 45 degrees, inclined interface is longer and the crack tip is closer, the less the crack suppression effect. If the inclined interface location is a more than twice the length of the inclined interface, the effect of suppressing crack propagation are constant regardless of the location. In case of the inclined interface is longer and the crack tip is closer, the cause of increase of energy release rate is a due to the increase of shear stress. If in case of the angle of inclination is 90 degrees, inclined interface is closer to the crack tip, the better the crack suppression effect. If the inclined interface location is a less than twice the length of the inclined interface, the effect of suppressing crack propagation are dominant. And if the inclined interface location is a more than twice the length of the inclined interface, crack suppression effect is gradually reduced.
The structural performance of a vehicle can be evaluated by the static and dynamic structural analyses which predict the amounts of deformation & stiffness, and the static analysis should be done first. Another important aspect to be considered in the design process is crashworthiness, because a structurally sturdy vehicle body may be overdesigned with the excessive strength and durability standards. The ideal condition of a body structure is to absorb the impact load at a certain level of local deformation, to distribute the load to each structure adequately, and to prevent the excessive stress concentration and deformation. This paper is the result of the consideration of vibration characteristic for structure stiffness estimation of automotive body through the finite element modeling.
Of the daily noises, construction noises cause serious conflicts between a construction firm and residents due to their high sound pressure level and shocking, repetitive sound. While South Korea regulates construction noises on the basis of legal criteria to minimize the damage from the noises, the regulation only involves a weighted sound level (dB(A)), which is loudness, like other types of noises. However, since construction noises are characterized by very diverse spectra and waveforms, it has been indicated that they cannot be reflected only by physical loudness: SPLdB(A). In addition, the need to reflect acoustic psychological characteristics and meanings of human beings in evaluating construction noises has recently been indicated. This study aimed to use six Zwicker parameters to determine the sound quality and acoustic psychological characteristics of construction noises and analyze the correlation between physical indexes of construction noises, as found in literature review, and the Zwicker parameters. Loudness of construction noises were closely correlated with SPLdB(A); shocking noises were perceived as ‘loud, sharp, and annoying’ sound. The Zwicker parameters were most strongly correlated with loudness, followed by unbiased annoyance and sharpness, among the evaluation indexes; as for correlation with construction noises, ‘normal noises’ were closely correlated with loudness, ‘shocking noises’ were closely correlated with loudness, unbiased annoyance, and sharpness, and ‘fluctuating noises’ were closely correlated with loudness. Therefore, if loudness, unbiased annoyance, and sharpness were taken into account in terms of the sound quality in evaluating construction noises, it is expected to be useful to make and revise criteria for regulating the noises.
In this study, the performances of the refrigeration unit for the box under actual operating conditions were examined by using the constant temperature and humidity chamber (air enthalpy method). For this purpose, the degree of superheat, pressure, and temperature were measured while changing the EEV opening, the compressor speed, the outdoor temperature, and the load in the refrigeration cycle of the refrigeration unit. The highest cooling performance was found at EEV 33%. However, EEV 35% with low compression ratio and degree of superheat was the most reliable in terms of reliability. Considering the compressor speed and cooling performance, the refrigeration unit was in an optimal condition at the compressor speed 3,040RPM. The results of this study will be provided as basic data for the optimal design of refrigeration units for box.
To fabricate the 5182 aluminum-polymer sandwich panels, the strength of 5182 aluminum panels, which are the skin sheets that constitutes the sandwich composite panels, is changed according to the degree of heat treatment after rolling, and the characteristics of sandwich panel are also changed. In addition, in the stress-strain curves of the sandwich panel, the serration behavior observed in the 5182 aluminum alloy sheet is also observed. This serration behavior causes surface roughness during sheet forming, which is a serious problem in application to automotive body sheet. In this study, the tensile properties of the 5182 aluminum sandwich panels at room and elevated temperature were carefully investigated by tensile test. It can be found that when the aluminum surface sheets having insufficient heat treatment time is applied, the serration behavior does not completely disappear from the temperature of the room temperature to 160℃.
This study was carried out to develop bulletproof helmet with improved bulletproof performance. In modern warfare, the role of personal protection materials in combat is very important because of increase of personal safety. Bulletproof helmets are being developed in the advanced countries in consideration of complex factors such as bulletproof performance improvement and light weight for reducing combat load. In order to develop the bulletproof helmet with improved bulletproof performance to be used in the future, the bulletproof performance test method is presented. The test was carried out under various environmental conditions for the evaluation of the bulletproof helmet.
An enthalpy exchange element (EEE) is frequently made of papers, and a concern exists on growth of fungus or bacteria. This concern may be eliminated if polymer membrane is used instead of paper. Furthermore, most existing enthalpy exchangers have cross-flow configuration, which yields lower performance than counter-flow one. In this study, a counter-flow enthalpy exchange element was made using PVDF and cellulose composite. Heat and moisture transfer tests were conducted changing the frontal air flow rate from 150 m 3 /h to 350 m 3 /h at both the heating and the cooling condition. Results showed that the temperature efficiencies were approximately the same independent of the weather condition. Humidity efficiencies at the heating condition, however, were higher than those at the cooling condition. Furthermore, the heat transfer coefficients approached the theoretical value as the flow rate increased. In addition, the vapor transmission rates at the heating condition were higher than those at the cooling condition, probably due to the higher humidity efficiency at the heating condition. Future research will be focused on moisture diffusion characteristics of the composite membrane, which requires further measurements of water holdup, equilibrium adsorption curve, etc.
It is well-known that the primary role of a vehicle exhaust system is to reduce the exhaust emissions and noise caused by a running vehicle. However, as vehicle exhaust systems are being evaluated and improved in various ways to satisfy consumer needs, technologies for reducing noise and vibration are significantly being developed. The biggest challenge in designing an exhaust system is generating the optimal back pressure and flow velocity for a running vehicle, thereby maximizing the performance, while simultaneously reducing the noise caused by the exhaust emissions. In this study, we designed the junction chamber shapes of various exhaust systems, which are applicable to V6 and above engines, and conducted a CFD analysis of the exhaust gas flowing through an exhaust pipe. In addition, we precisely measured the noise and vibration caused by a vehicle and analyzed the correlation.
In this study, an effervescent atomizer capable of mixing and spraying vegetable oil and kerosene at the same time was proposed to examine the usefulness of vegetable oil and kerosene in terms of recycling of renewable energy and waste resources. The effect of nozzle exit diameter variation on the atomization characteristics such as spray angle, droplet size distribution, cumulative volume distribution, and SMD was investigated using LDPA. The results of this study showed that the spray angles decreased with increasing ALR at the same nozzle exit diameter and increased with increasing nozzle exit diameter under the same ALR condition. SMD was decreased with increasing ALR at all nozzle exit diameters, and SMD was decreased with decreasing nozzle exit diameter even under the same ALR conditions. Also, the droplet was more finely atomized when the nozzle exit diameter is reduced under the same ALR conditions and when the ALR is increased at the same nozzle exit diameter, but the uniformity of the droplets was lowered because the droplet with a larger diameter existed.
Abstract We demonstrate convenient alignment technologies using imprinting lithography with sol-gel process. The aligned nano pattern is fabricated on a silicon wafer by laser interference lithography. For conformal imprinting process, aligned nano pattern was transferred onto the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Using a PDMS sheet with aligned nano pattern, aligned nano pattern was created onto the sol-gel driven hafnium zinc oxide by imprinting lithography. The process was conducted at annealing temperatures of 150 °C. The obtained pattern on the HfZnO film acted as a guide for aligning liquid crystal (LC) molecules. The geometric restriction induced by aligned pattern leads to LC alignment along to the aligned nano pattern. The combination of imprint lithography and solution-processed inorganic materials proved good alternative of LC alignment technique.
This paper focuses on the simulation of refrigeration cycle equipped with the adiabatic capillary tube, which is widely used in small vapor compression refrigeration systems. The present simulation is based on fundamental conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum. These equations are solved through an iterative process. The adiabatic capillary tube model is based on homogeneous flow model. This model is used to understand the natural refrigerants flow behavior inside the adiabatic capillary tube. Transport properties and thermodynamic of natural refrigerants are calculated by using EES(Engineering Equation Solver) program. The operating factors considered in this paper include condensation temperature, evaporation temperature, inner diameter tube and sub-cooling degree of the adiabatic capillary tube. Our simulation results are summarized as follows: as the size of the inner diameter tube increases, the pressure drop in the capillary tube decreases while the length of the capillary tube increases. We found that R-290 decreases by 20-22% on average, and R-600a significantly decreases below 50%, while R-1270 increases 17-19% on average, compared to R-134a.
The objective of this numerical study is to investigate the effect of aluminium material on the weight reduction in tubular shaft yoke and solid shaft yoke. The tubular shaft and the solid shaft were designed by 6 stage processes and the results were analyzed by using a finite element analysis method. The coefficient of friction was set to Oil_cold as referred to the analysis library. It was found that the weight was reduced as 65% with applying the aluminium alloy due to lower density than carbon steel. Von-mises stress values of applying aluminium alloy to the tubular shaft yoke and solid shaft yoke were lower than those of carbon steel because of the low yield stress of aluminium alloy. The folding and underfill phenomenon were not observed on the aluminium alloy in tubular shaft yoke and solid shaft yoke. From these results, the weight reduction of products and the extend life of dies can be expected when aluminium alloy is applied.
The objective of this study is to develope the inspection standards and methods of motorcycle based on the Korean Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (KMVSS), the Korean Motor Vehicle Inspection Standards (KMVI), the inspection standards of the International Motor Vehicle Inspection Committee (CITA), United Kingdom, United State of America and Japan. 20 items related with motorcycle safety are suggested to inspect. Brake performance, headlight lamp, and speed are suggested to measure by a mechanical devices while the rest of items to inspect visually. The inspection with the suggested methods for 138 various models of runs are conducted for verifying the adaptability of present inspection standards. 88.4%, 54%, and 100% of runs satisfy the inspection criteria of the brake performance, lamp, and speedometer, respectively. Inspection time is expected to be about 10 to 16 minutes.
In the agriculture of strawberry cultivation, it is necessary to loosening and breaking up of the intertwined coco peat and strawberry root in order to cultivate strawberry again. The main objective of this study is to design and analyze the structure of strawberry rotary device for using breaking up of coco peat and strawberry root. In order to perform crushing coco peat on the bed, the rotary device was designed under the weigh 20kg with the speed 11.75m/min, and it can operate on bed width from 250~310mm. Due to different depth of bed, the body of device also was designed screw holder to adjust the hight from 0~120mm. To evaluate the safety of structure, body device was analyzed in static and free vibration state by using Abaqus program. The device was applied maximum load 1177.2N, and the maximum equivalent stress was reached 41.9MPa. The free vibration analysis of two rotating cutter showed minimum natural frequency mode 338.58Hz and 339.9Hz. The results indicate that the designed rotary device was satisfied and has enough strength under design and simulation conditions.