An elliptic blending Reynolds stress transport equation model for Newtonian fluids has been extended to predict polymer-induced drag reduction FENE-P fluids. The conformation tensor equation which is related to the polymer stress is adopted from the model form of Resende et al., and the models of redistribution and dissipation rate terms for the Reynolds stress transport equation are considered by the elliptic blending equation. Also, the new model terms for viscoelastic turbulent transport and viscoelastic dissipation in the Reynolds stress transport equation are introduced to consider the polymer additives effect. The prediction results are directly compared to the DNS data to assess the performance of the present model predictions.
Recently, uncertainty of demand and supply for energy has expanded as energy market change rapidly. Rapid accumulation storing of cold heat is a method for decreasing the gap between demand and supply of time, quantity and quality of heat energy. It is stored rapidly when electric power is on. And cold heat energy in heat is phase change material (PCM) heat storage is used when electric power is off. Porous media for cold heat is PCM. The present study has been conducted for improving performance of cold heat storage in refrigerator using characteristics on laten heat and phase change of PCM. This study provide basic data to improve performance of cold heat using characteristic of PCM. Also, this study predicts and measures specific points in PCM heat storage during process of phase change.
The characteristics of the turbulent MHD channel flows are analysed within the elliptic blending model. The evaluation of additional terms representing the MDH interactions in the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate is carried out firstly. And then, the improvement of model coefficients for the additional terms is achieved. Regardless of the magnetic field orientation, perpendicular and parrel to the main flow, the model coefficients for the additional terms are not changed to maintain the generality of the present model. The prediction results are directly compared to the DNS data to assess the performance of the present model.
An algebraic model for turbulent heat fluxes is proposed on the basis of the elliptic blending equation. The algebraic model satisfies the temperature-pressure gradient correlation characteristics of near-wall region and the flow center region far away from the wall. That is, the turbulent heat flux conditions for both regions are connected by the solution of the elliptic blending equation. The predictions of turbulent heat transfer in a plane channel flow have been carried out with constant wall heat flux and constant wall temperature difference boundary conditions respectively. Also, the rotating channel flow with constant wall temperature difference is considered to test the applicability of the model. The prediction results show that the distributions of the turbulent heat fluxes and mean temperature are well captured by the present algebraic heat flux model.
An algebraic model for turbulent heat fluxes which is originally suggested by Suga & Abe is modified on the basis of the elliptic blending equation. In order to satisfy the heat transfer characteristics of near-wall region and the flow center region far away from the wall, the model coefficients of the algebraic heat flux model are modified by using the solution of the elliptic blending equation. The predictions of turbulent heat transfer in a plane channel flow have been carried out with constant wall heat flux and constant wall temperature difference boundary conditions respectively. Also, the predictions are performed at various Prandtl numbers to test the applicability of the model. The prediction results show that the distributions of the turbulent heat fluxes and mean temperature are well captured by the modified algebraic heat flux model
In this study, we conducted field surveys to investigate and analyze species and length composition of catch from gape net with wings being set in two areas - Masari, Supomri - located in southern part of Jin-do for understanding fishing characteristics of gape net with wings fishery from March to September of 2011. And with those results, we attempted to propose fishery management strategy to harvest fisheries resources continuously. Catch obtained from field surveys comprised total 78 species, which accounted for 53 species of fish, 20 species of crustacean, 4 species of cephalopod and one of polychaete. As to species composition in weight, it showed that there was 88.5% for pisces, 9.0% for cephalopoda and 2.5% for crustacea. As to catch specifics by area, there was 36 species (596,891 individual, 456,551g) of pisces, 17 species (35,815 individual, 12,909g) of crustacea and 3 species (2,876 individual, 3,004g) of cephalopoda in Masari area. In Supumri area, there was 41 species (396,898 individual, 281,457g) of pisces, 15 species (16,113 individual, 7,772g) of crustacea and 4 species (6,792 individual, 72,329g) of cephalopoda and one polychaeta (36 individual, 11g). Catch of anchovy by month recorded on high level on June, July, September in both areas. When considering size composition by month, it was found that new populations recruit to these fishing grounds on June and September. Most of bycatch species including hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus), dotted gizzard shad (Konosirus punctatus), conger eel (Leptocephalous), Pacific sandlance (Ammodytes personatus), horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) were juvenile, and grass puffer (Takifugu niphobles), Kammal thryssa (Thryssa kammalensis), Japanese sardinella (Sardinella zunasi) were also small in size. As a result, it is considered that gape net with wings fishery which is likely to catch juvenile needs to be set fishing prohibit period for conserving above stocks during the period excluding main fishing periods of anchovy or fisheries management such as expanding mesh size for preventing juvenile catch.
This study describes the amendment of Durbin's k-∈-v2-f model and its application to turbulent channel flow to test the model’s performance. Modeling redistribution and dissipation rate terms for the scalar v2 transport equation is considered by the elliptic blending equation which is used in the second moment closure generally. The prediction results are directly compared to the DNS and Durbin's original k-∈-v2-f model to assess the performance of the new model predictions and to show their reasonable agreement with the DNS and Durbin's model for all the flow characteristics that are analyzed for the present study.
Local Nusselt number and temperature field distribution within the compound duct with gap have been measured. Measurement of air and wall temperature span a range of gap width from 2mm to 6mm. Also, the Reynolds number is variated from 20,000 to 40,0000. In order to observe the correlations between gap width and turbulent heat transfer, the present measurement has tried to verify the enhancement effect of heat transfer when a gap exists within the compound channel. From this measurement, we could see that the pulsating flow has generated a strong turbulent flow mixing within the compound channel. And the turbulent flow mixing in the pulsating flow plays an effective role of enhancing the Nusselt number by making the fluid temperature uniformly within the compound channel.
As a fish way is a structure for fish migrating well toward upper stream due to breaking river flow by a dam or dammed pool, the specific fish's swimming ability is one of the main factors in making a plan and managing it. In addition, it also needs to understand the current field in fish road to evaluate its performance. This study is aimed to analyze the swimming patterns with current velocity changes using a Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) in order to understand the swimming ability of silver fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) that is one of the fishes migrating through the fish way of Nakdong River, and to analyze the 2 dimensional current field near to silver fish at swimming momentum. The results showed that average values of tail beat frequencies for continuous swimming with current velocity were 2.8 Hz at 0.3 m/s, 3.2 Hz at 0.4 m/s, 3.8 Hz at 0.5 m/s, respectively. The wake would be produced by direction turning of fish's tail fin and its magnitude would be verified by the difference of pressure. The pressure turbulent flow produced by its tail beat would be made in both sides, and then, the magnitude of wake should be the source of moving direction. The swimming momentum will help to support the primary factor in making a suitable design for specific fish species migrating toward the district river.
In the present study, we developed optimal heat supply algorithm which minimizes the heat loss through the distribution pipe line in group energy apartment. Heating load variation of group energy apartment building in accordance with outdoor air temperature was predicted by the correlation obtained from calorimeter measurements of whole households of apartment building. Supply water temperature and mass flow rate were conjugately controlled to minimize the heat loss rate through distribution pipe line. Group heating apartment located in Hwaseong city, Korea, which has 1,473 households divided in 4 regions, was selected as the object apartment for verifying the present heat supply control algorithm. Compared to the original heat supply system, 10.4% heat loss rate reduction can be accomplished by employing the present control algorithm.
Ground source heat pumps are clean, energy-efficient and environment-friendly systems. Although the initial cost of ground source heat pump system is higher than that of air source heat pump, it is now widely accepted as an economical system since the installation cost can be returned within an short period of time due to its high efficiency. In the present study, performances of ground source compound hybrid heat pump system applied to a resort building are simulated. The system design and operation process appropriate for the surrounding circumstance guarantee the high benefit of the heat pump system applied to a resort building. If among several renewable energy sources, ground, river, sea, waste water source are chosen as available alternative energies are combined, COP of the system can be increased largely and hybrid heat pump system can reduced the fuel cost.
This investigation was carried out to research on the actual states for bycatch and discards of catches caught by funnel net from December, 2007 to June, 2010. Fishing grounds were Manheung-dong and Ocheon-dong in the coastal waters of Yeosu. The number of the investigation was 21 in Manheung-dong and 7 in Ocheon-dong fishing ground. In Manheung-dong, the species of catches were 26 of fish, 6 of cephalopod and 5 of crustacean. In Ocheon-dong, the species of catches were 25 of fish, 6 of cephalopod and 4 of crustacean. In the two all fishing grounds, the largest amount of species was revealed as gray mullet. Among these catches, the number of non marketable species that were classified and discarded ones, were 9 in Manheung-dong and 7 in Ocheon-dong. Also, among the marketable species which were small entity or too tiny catches to commercialize and not fresh ones were discarded. The proportion that they dominate in the whole catches was 37.1% in the number of catches and 5.4% in the weight of catches in Manheung-dong, and 6.9% in the number of catches and 0.3% in the weight of catches in Ocheon-dong. In case of Manheung-dong, the monthly discarding proportion was the highest with 59.4% in the number of catches in may and 17.6% in the weight of catches in November, and in case of Ocheon-dong, the both of them were the highest in February, with 28.0% in the number of catches and 5.1% in the weight of catches.
Recently, Fishermen have required to expand the circumference of trap entrance for conger eel because it was difficult to take the catch out as well as to put the baits into. A series of fishing experiments was carried out in coastal areas of Tongyoung, Korea in 2008 and 2009 using the traps to describe the effect of the entrance size on the catch. The experimental traps (five types) were used in filed experiments with four types circumference size traps (140, 180, 220 and 260mm) with mesh size 22mm and another type was used the same one usually using in filed with mesh size 35mm (750mm circumference). The experiment results were, the conger eels of total length 35mm more or so were caught 85, 93, 142 and 176 individual by the experiment traps with mesh size 22mm as increase circumference size from 140mm to 260mm, respectively. And the small conger eels of the total length below 35mm to be prohibited to catch by law were caught 145, 160, 288 and 304 individual according to increase the circumference size of trap, respectively. In addition, in case of the trap with mesh size 22mm, bycatches were 230 - 260 individuals and much more than bycatches of the trap with mesh size 35mm. In conclusion, when we expand the circumference size of trap according to fishermen's requirement, we should review not only economic of fishery but also increasement the bycatch of non-target fishes and small size fishes.
It has been considered that fishing areas for shrimp beam trawl have been in ruin because Korean local governments have permitted trawling into the areas limited by the fisheries local regulations from 1994. Physical and biological effects of the trawling were investigated in the study. Physical effects were investigated by optical methods such as trawling tracking by side scan sonar and comparing the gear both before and after trawling. Biological aspects were investigated by grab sampling of benthic animals, concentration of trace metals in sediment and a flux evaluation of NH4+, PO4-, and SiO2 by coring. The fishing activity had physical impacts on the seabed but these recovered naturally in less than fourty days naturally, which increased the benthic biodiversity, increases the trace metal concentration of and nutrient flux into the seawater, especially phosphate and silicate. This method and these results can help in further studies looking for disturbances by fishing.
Due to change of various marine environments according to seawater temperature rising, Japanese common squid(Todarodes pacificus), which was distributed in East Sea, was recently caught in Yellow Sea during a summer season from 2006. The fishery resources density research was carried out in Korea-China Provisional Water Zone using trawl fishing gear and acoustics in National Fisheries Research & Development Institute in Korea. This paper showed the analysis on the acoustical backscattering strength by two frequencies(38kHz, 120kHz) for Japanese common squid by acoustical scattering theoretical model based on size distribution for survey period, and estimate the density distribution for squid s integrated layer which was extracted from any scatterers distributed in water column using two frequency difference method which has been used to distinguish fish shoals or specific target scatterers from sound scattering layer which is composed of various zooplankton. Furthermore, the entire range of their density estimation was suggested using by Monte Carlo simulation under considering each uncertainty such as size distributions or swimming angle and so on in survey area.
This study shows that the distribution density of snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio, was estimated using an underwater video monitoring system attached on the towing sledge. The field experiments were carried out at the coastal waters around Chuksan, East Sea, where ranged from 110 to 130m depth during September and October 2007. The sledge was towed for 40 minutes and the towing speed was controlled between 1.5 to 1.7 knot and each research areas were calculated to multiply towed distance by the detection width of the video monitoring system(1.2m), and then, distribution density of snow crab in each observations were estimated as a counted number of crab per 1,000m2. The result shows that their survey, taken between two months, reflected similar results during survey period, and the maximum and mean distribution densities in September estimated to be 77.0(number/1,000m2) and 19.9, respectively, and those of October were 36.0 and 21.8, respectively.
The paper reports on the prediction of turbulent heat transfer in flows between parallel plates with wall transpiration. The elliptic blending second moment closure for turbulent stresses and the GGDH model for turbulent heat fluxes are employed to predict the turbulent flow and heat transfer. The numerical results by the adopted models are directly compared to the DNS data and the measurements to assess the performance of the model predictions. The predictions show correctly the effect of deceleration and acceleration of the flow caused by the transpiration, and the anisotropy of the turbulence structure is augmented towards downstream by the fluid injection. The turbulence structure and heat transfer characteristics of transpired flows are well captured by the present turbulence and heat flux models.
Sea experiment for this study was carried out to develop a Trawl Escapement Net(TEN) using net material to improve the survival rate of undersized fishes that escaped from trawls in the Korean southern sea in May and November, 2005. Three kinds of Trawl Escapement Net(TEN) were examined to increase the escapement rate for fishes escaped from the TEN, and total catches in the codend and cover-net were investigated. The main catch species in the experimental fishing trials using a V shape TEN(A type) in May were Korean pomfret(Pampus echinogaster), slimy(Leiognathus nuchalis), gizzard shad(Konosirus punctatus), white croaker(Pennahia argentata) and smelt(Sillago sihama). In the experimental fishing trials using a V shape TEN with a protector for undersized fishes(B type) and a panel shape TEN with a protector(C type) in November, the main catch species were horse mackerel(Trachurus japonicus), sea pike (Sphyraena japonica), large-head hairtail(Trichiurus lepturus), kammal thryssa(Thryssa kammalensis), white croaker(Pennahia argentata), butterfish(Psenopsis anomala) and red gurnard(Lepidotrigla microptera). Most of large-sized fish species like Korean pomfret and Spanish mackerel could not escape through the TEN in the B type and C type. Catches of horse mackerel were highest in the experimental fishing of November and escapement rates for most fish species including horse mackerel were higher in the C type compared with B type.
The purpose of this study is to develop the jellyfish separator system(JSS) for reducing fishery damage by the increase of jellyfish in the sea area of Korea in summer. First of all, to find the optimum structure of a JSS, six types of JSS in trawl fishery were designed and manufactured, the underwater shape of JSS and the separating process by JSS were observed in the circulating water channel(CWC). And the field experiments were carried out in July and September 2004 in the southern sea of Korea. For the moving path of the jellyfish model in the CWC, in case that the model was larger than the mesh size of the separator net, it was guided toward the lower part of the separator net by the guiding net and discharged through the outlet. In case that the model was smaller than the mesh size of the separator net, some models which passed through the upper part of the guiding net were smaller than the mesh size of the guiding net and discharged through the outlet and most of the model which passed through the lower part of the guiding net moved to the codend passing through the separator net. According to the field experiment result, the optimum tilt angle of separator net was inferred 20˚ that the discharge rate of jellyfish was higher than the other tilt angle of separator net and the optimum structure of JSS was inferred GS type(consists of guiding net and separator net) that the discharge rate of jellyfish was higher than S type(consists of separator net). It was demamded to carry out more study for the countermeasure to reduce loss of fish.