Recently, the International Maritime Organization is strengthening regulations for ships operating in polar regions. Hence, insulated multi-core tubes as components for vessels operating in extreme cold need to be investigated in various aspects. Furthermore, the demand for research on electric propulsion vessels is also increasingly growing. Thus, to utilize a 4-core insulated multi-core tube with glass wool as insulation, which was previously developed for ships operating in polar regions, as a water-cooled electrical cable, this study conducted an experiment on the temperature change when water at normal temperature 25℃ was supplied as a coolant under the overcurrent varied from 10A to 25A. As a result, the temperature increase of the core in 10A condition was 3.3℃, but it increased to 13.05℃ in the 25A condition. This showed that a temperature difference of approximately 9.75℃ occurred according to the overcurrent load. However, the coolant inlet and outlet temperatures were relatively uniform around 1℃ in all conditions. This suggests that increasing the residence time by proper control of the coolant flow in the future could achieve a higher cooling effect.
In this study, in order to confirm the machining characteristics of AISI 1020 CD-Bar, cutting was performed after strength measurement, and surface roughness analysis was performed according to cutting conditions. Tensile strength was reduced by about 27.7% compared to AISI 1045 material, and Rockwell hardness HRC was reduced by 46.7%. The surface roughness measurement after cutting was divided into roughing, semi-finishing and finishing turning. In particular, in finishing machining, the best surface roughness was confirmed when the cutting speed was 150m/min and the depth of cut was 0.6mm based on the feed rate of 0.05mm/rev.
The fuel oil used for ships has the viscosity higher than the fuel used for general vehicles and contain impurities, so it’s exhaust gas results in the environment pollution. There have been studies actively conducted to examine alternative fuels for improving the quality of the marine fuel oil. It is, however, necessary to test the quality of fuel for mega ships, by conducting the simulation test using reduced-size models, before the demonstration step, because it takes too much cost and time to directly perform the demonstration of alternative fuels. This study, therefore, developed a 30-liter small-size boiler similar to the ship system and performed an initial fuel test by applying MGO to it. The findings show that the amount of nitrogen oxide to which 4% of the standard oxide level was applied was about 24.69ppm, when the oxide level was 10.02%, with the CO2 of 8.02%, the exhaust gas temperature of 291.15℃ and the combustion efficiency of about 74.53%, indicating that it will be necessary to conduct various studies through the ratio control in the future.
Environmental noise occurring on ships has various negative impacts on sailors’ health conditions such as hearing loss, sleep disturbance, psychological stress, etc., so regulations on them are required, but the ship noise regulations are usually applied to only large merchant ships. Although regulations on fishing boats with strong fishing and work intensity are determined to be necessary, there has been little relevant research. This study, therefore, attempted to measure the environmental noise of coastal composite fishing vessels less than two tones and provide the results of basic research on the noise regulations for fishing vessels. It measured them by setting the measurement zones as after side, midship and fore side, and based on the criterion of IMO MSC 337(91). The findings showed that the noise of them often exceeded 75dB(A), the criterion of the open deck noise in the zones in which the load of main engines was increased. In particular, the noise of the stern was as high as 92.2dB(A) during the full ahead. Hence, hearing loss may be caused by such a noise, so a variety of regulations on it are determined to be necessary.
Korea is a country where the population is concentrated in metropolitan areas that have undergone rapid industrial development. As of 2020, more than 43% of the total population lives in large cities, and about 18.5% of the total population lives in Seoul. A basic human need living in such a metropolis is a pleasant environment. In this study, complex odors and designated odors were evaluated at the boundary areas and at the outlets for 15 public environmental facilities selected from among odor sources in Seoul. As a result of measuring the complex odor intensity was 3 ~ 6 times at the boundary areas and 100 ~ 4,481 times at the outlets. In food waste treatment facilities, incineration facilities, and waste transfer station facilities, the compound making the largest contribution to odor is acetaldehyde, which was recorded at 46%, 25%, and 32% respectively. At a sewage treatment facility and agro-fisheries wholesale market, hydrogen sulfide was the largest contributing compound at 71% and 29% respectively.
Complaints about foul odors are emerging as an issue, and the number of complaints is steadily increasing every year. Biofiltration is known to remove harmful or odorous substances from the atmosphere by using microorganisms, and full-scale biofilters are being installed and operated in various environmental and industrial facilities. In this study, the current status and actual odor removal efficiency of full-scale biofilters installed in publicly owned treatment facilities such as sewage, manure, and livestock manure treatment plants were investigated. In addition, the effects of design and operating factors on their efficiency were also examined. As a result, it was found that odor prevention facilities with less than 30% odor removal efficiency based on complex odors accounted for 40%-50% of the biofilters investigated. In investigating the appropriate level of operating factors on odor removal efficiency, it was found that compliance with the recommended values p lays a significant role in improving odor removal efficiency. In the canonical correlation analysis for the on-site biofilter operation and design data, residence time and humidity were found to be the most critical factors. The on-site biofilter operation and design data were analyzed through canonical correlation analysis, and the residence time and humidity maintenance were found to be the most important factors in the design and operations of the biofilter. Based on these results, it is necessary to improve the odor removal efficiency of on-site biofilters by reviewing the effectiveness of the operation factors, improving devices, and adjusting operating methods.
The types and distribution ratio of odor removal systems installed in publicly owned environmental facilities such as sewage treatment, wastewater treatment, manure treatment, livestock manure treatment, and food waste treatment were investigated. Since the intensity of the odor and the composition of the odor substances are different depending on the type of each public treatment facility, different odor removal efficiencies were derived depending on the applied odor removal technology. In addition, the removal efficiency of complex odors and individual odor substances of odor removal systems such as those applying biofilters, scrubbers, and adsorption towers were also compared and evaluated. Although it depends on each odor removal technology and application facility, about 50% of various odor removal systems presented an odor removal performance of less than 30%. The odor removal systems with an odor removal efficiency of 70% or more were evaluated to be less than 30% of the total number. Therefore, we suggest that odor removal efficiencies should be improved through continuous monitoring, diagnosis, reinforcement of maintenance, and improvement of systems.
Quality standards of activated carbon for gas-phase applications have been deleted from the Korean national standard list since 2007, and the iodine adsorption test is the only measure currently used for quality assurance. This study was performed to propose a suitable test method and a quality standard for gas-phase activated carbon. The "1/2 saturated vapor adsorption" test has been developed as a simple and convenient method to determine the adsorption capacity of activated carbon. In this study, the developed test method was evaluated using model VOCs including toluene, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and ethyl acetate (EA). A virgin activated carbon revealed adsorption capacities of 344mg/g, 322mg/g, and 328mg/g for toluene, EA, and MEK, respectively, and the adsorption capacity for a mixture of the three VOCs was 334 mg/g. When a regenerated activated carbon was applied, the adsorption capacities dramatically decreased to 62 mg/g, 52 mg/g, and 61 mg/ g for toluene, EA, and MEK, respectively. In addition, the 1/2 solvent vapor adsorption tests using 13 different specimens of activated carbon showed that their capacities were closely related to the iodine adsorption numbers, and this study suggested the adsorption capacity of 300 mg/g as a new quality standard. The novel test method and its standard may help to guarantee the quality of gas-phase activated carbon used for VOCs abatement processes.
Most of the white fumes from the tenter process of a textile plant in an industrial complex are generated by water vapor and oil mist. While general water vapor disappears when the humidity is lowered, the white fume generated in the tenter process does not disappear and is continuously maintained, resulting in environmental problems and complaints. Efforts to reduce white fume are being conducted, but it is vitally important to develop a performance index that quantitatively calculates and deduces the degree by which white fume has been reduced, so that a tangible and visible result can be obtained in the performance evaluation of prevention facilities. In this study, the removal efficiency or performance of a general wet scrubber and a wet electrostatic precipitator (electrical fume collector, EFC) installed in the actual textile tenter process was analyzed by the light scattering method that can measure the concentration of particles up to a high level. The white fume removal efficiency of the EFC was 92%, much higher than the 17% removal efficiency of the general scrubber. In addition, the EFC was more effective in removing toluene, 1,1'- [oxybis(methylene)]bis- Benzene, and benzothiazole, which are the major substances generated from the textile tenter process, as well as complex odors. From these results, it was found that the light scattering method is one of the useful tools to evaluate the performance of white fume prevention facilities in the industrial field in terms of satisfying the urgent need for measurement and the ability to obtain a clear and precise result on site. This approach is meaningful in that real-time quantification is applicable more intuitively than the gravimetric method in assessing the fume removal performance as it can be observed with the naked eye.
The ship security accidents that occur in ships, at sea, and in ports have become increasingly more serious in recent years, and in particular, maritime terrorism and the abduction by pirates are emerging as an international problem. Accordingly, the International Maritime Organization implemented a measures to enhance ship security by adopting SOLAS Chapter 11-2, ISPS-code in 2004. In this study, it was investigated whether JDS-S4, a directional sound receiver developed for responding to ship security accident, has durability and safety suitable for ships. For the purpose, the conducted emission test (CE102) of the US military standard test (MIL-STD-461F) was performed, and it was confirmed that JDS-S4 satisfies the test conditions sufficiently.
Recently, air pollution from fossil fuels is at a serious level, and the IMO proposes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 70% by 2050, and controls greenhouse gas emissions by applying the energy efficiency disign index(EEDI) to each ship type. In this study, the marine fuel oil viscosity of MGO, MDO, HFO and CGO according to the temperature change was compared and measured and the difference was analyzed. As a result, the viscosity of CGO was 3.32mPa·s, which was almost similar to MGO(3.40mPa·s) and MDO(3.51mPa·s) so it was judged that it could be used as a marine fuel, and it was found that there was a significant difference with HFO at P<0.01 there was.
Due to severe environmental pollution from ships, IMO(International Maritime Organization) is imposing strict controls on pollutant emission in ECA(Emission Control Area). There have been active studies to find fuel that could replace existing fossil fuel and especially in recent times, diverse studies on recycling of coffee ground are in progress. The annual domestic consumption of coffee was 150,000 tons according to the data of 2017 year and 99% of them are coffee ground to be scrapped. Therefore, in this study, coffee ground was mixed with diesel oil to develop alternative fuel. The analysis result showed that when coffee ground and diesel oil were mixed at a rate of 30%, 20% and 10%, the diameter of coffee ground droplet was 49.1μm, 45.9μm and 17.5μm respectively.
The security accidents occurring in ships and at seas and ports became very serious, and in particular, the maritime terrorism and abduction by pirates have emerged at the international level as a problem. The international maritime organization (IMO), accordingly, entered into such forces as the SOLAS chapter and measures in order to reinforce the maritime security and the security for ships and port facilities in 2004. In this study, the JDS-S4 improved as an oriented speaker to reinforce the ship security by enabling the clear communication even at long distance was tested by using the conducted emission test(CE101) and a standard test of the US military standard (MIL-STD-461F). Also, the result of this study was shown to satisfy the standard.
The deck area of a ship uses a variety of mechanisms and especially, for handling heavy materials, such as a Windlass, a Davit and a Derrick, a Winch for a deck, which controls by winding a drum with a wire or a rope is mostly used. Since the winch mainly uses a hydraulic system depending on driving characteristics, load-based power consumption is the most important device for this method. Therefore, an experimental study on the effect of energy reduction resulting from the flow rate variation was conducted by applying an inverter control to the deck winch, which is being used in a real training ship. As a result, when the surrounding environment and the driving condition were equal to each other, the maximum reduction and the minimum reduction in power consumption resulting from the flow rate variation excepting the maximum flow rate conditions was 51.8% and 16.1% respectively.
Recently, the annual emission rate of CO2 that is the main reason for domestic greenhouse gases is the third highest globally, which means it is an extremely serious issue. It is considered that these greenhouse gases affect climate changes. Especially, the emissions of CO2 in the fishing industry are nearly 4.11 million tons each year, occupying 0.7 percent of domestic total emissions. Therefore, this study clearly analyzed fuel consumption of major fish species over the recent five years focusing on large purse seines. It was revealed that mackerels occupied 55.7 percent of total fish catches of large purse seines and 57.5percent of total fishing earnings. Also, fuel consumption was 236.62 liters per ton caught and 179.51liters per million won earned.
In recent years, on average, 270 domestic marine pollution accidents are occurring a year and especially, damage by oil outflow accidents is extremely serious. These large-scale oil outflow accidents bring about a very huge damage to marine living resources and recovery of nature and it takes a long period of time to restore. Therefore, this study aims to examine the increase in the marine pollution control staff over the last decade focusing on the Maritime Pollution Response Bureau that is an organization affiliated to Korea Coast Guard run by the state and compare the number of marine accidents and marine pollutant outflow. Over the past decade, the pollution staff has increased to 110, which is 30 percent higher than the total number of employees and excepting the large-scale outflow accident of a specific year, the outflow has slowly decreased by nearly 55 percent. Although marine pollution accidents have partially grown, most of them are slight careless faults in small fishing vessels with a weight of 50 tons or under. In conclusion, the increase in the marine pollution control staff has led to the decrease in outflow, which means obviously, increasing the marine pollution control staff has had a positive influence on improvement in marine pollutant outflow.
Valves are widely used in various industrial fields, such as plants, vessels and shipbuilding. In particular, the performance of the valve is an important factor that can influence the performance of the entire system. Therefore, in this basic study to establish a national technical qualification in the domestic field of valve maintenance, demands for the fields of valves and major congruence were analyzed focusing on the industrial facility curriculum of Korea Polytechnics, and level-differentiated trial examinations were applied to relevant majors to standardize the developed valve tester. The trial examination result displayed that in the highest level of difficulty, in the medium level of difficulty and in the lowest level of difficulty, the pass rate was 0%, 17.86% and 39.29% respectively.
In this study, four types of water-heavy fuel oil hybrid emulsion oil were manufactured depending on the moisture content ratio in order to reduce exhaust emissions of heavy fuel oil(Bunder-C), which is necessarily used in vessels, power plants and boilers. The components of the manufactured emulsion oil were analyzed using the ISO standard testing method. The analysis result showed that in the EM25 fuel with a maximum moisture content ratio of 25.0%, the moisture content was 25.0%, the sulphur content was 0.20%, the kinematic viscosity was 144.8mm2/s, the specific gravity was 0.9382, and the flash point was 100 Celsius degrees or above.
Recently air pollution is becoming a global environment issue. Especially, the smoke from engines and boiler systems, which burn fossil fuels directly, is an extremely serious issue. For this reason, IMO is tightening regulations for the control of NOx and SOx. Therefore, in this study, the NOx reduction effect of emulsified oil mixed with 10% of water was tested after applying the emulsified oil to an industrial boiler burner using Bunker-C oil. The study showed that the exhaust gas oxygen concentration of emulsified oil was nearly 1.3% high and this was identified by the effect of dissolved oxygen contained in water. Also, based on the standard oxygen concentration(4%), the average and maximum NOx reduction rates were 28.53% and 30.23% respectively, which means the reduction efficiency was very high.