Powder flowability is critical in additive manufacturing processes, especially for laser powder bed fusion. Many powder features, such as powder size distribution, particle shape, surface roughness, and chemical composition, simultaneously affect the flow properties of a powder; however, the individual effect of each factor on powder flowability has not been comprehensively evaluated. In this study, the impact of particle shape (sphericity) on the rheological properties of Ti-6Al-4V powder is quantified using an FT4 powder rheometer. Dynamic image analysis is conducted on plasma-atomized (PA) and gas-atomized (GA) powders to evaluate their particle sphericity. PA and GA powders exhibit negligible differences in compressibility and permeability tests, but GA powder shows more cohesive behavior, especially in a dynamic state, because lower particle sphericity facilitates interaction between particles during the powder flow. These results provide guidelines for the manufacturing of advanced metal powders with excellent powder flowability for laser powder bed fusion.
This paper presents the torque ripple reduction control to apply an SRM to the X-by-wire drive systems which replaces the mechanical control method with “by-wire” to secure the flexibility of design and modification. However, torque ripples generated from the SRM can affect the performance and stability of the system. The proposed torque ripple control schemes are compared with the previously studied methods by dynamic simulation in regards to torque distribution functions and instant torque controller.
This paper proposes predictive deadbeat current control, one of the model predictive controls. The predictive deadbeat control is compared to the conventional current control methods to validate its feasibility in X-by-Wire systems.
In this paper, 1kW prototype PCS for tidal power generation system, which is attracting attention as the next-generation renewable energy, is studied. Tidal power generation is a method of producing energy using the difference between the tides. The advantage of tidal generators is that, unlike other renewable energies such as wave power, wind power, and solar power, they are relatively less affected by the weather changes and are regularly produced at regular intervals.
Piezoelectric ceramic specimens with the Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.65Ti0.35O3 (PMN-PT) composition are prepared by the solid state reaction method known as the “columbite precursor” method. Moreover, the effects of the Li2O-Bi2O3 additive on the microstructure, crystal structure, and piezoelectric properties of sintered PMN-PT ceramic samples are investigated. The addition of Li2O-Bi2O3 lowers the sintering temperature from 1,200oC to 950oC. Moreover, with the addition of >5 wt.% additive, the crystal structure changes from tetragonal to rhombohedral. Notably, the sample with 3 wt.% additive exhibits excellent piezoelectric properties (d33 = 596 pC/N and Kp = 57%) and a sintered density of 7.92 g/cm3 after sintering at 950oC. In addition, the sample exhibits a curie temperature of 138.6oC at 1 kHz. Finally, the compatibility of the sample with a Cu electrode is examined, because the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate the absence of interdiffusion between Cu and the ceramic material.
The point-of-use water dispenser systems are widely used because of convenience in handling and demand for high-quality drinking water. The application has been increased recently in the public places such as department stores, universities and the rest areas in express ways. Improvement of water qualities by the dispenser systems was compared with tap water in this study. The tap water is supplied to the dispenser as the influent of the dispenser system. The twelve dispensers in the public places were used. The five dispensers used reverse osmosis as the main filter and other dispensers used various filters such as ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and alumina filter. The water quality indicators for sanitation safety, i.e., turbidity and total coliforms, were evaluated. Other water qualities such as pH, residual chlorine, heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and total cell counts were also analyzed. By the point-of-use water dispenser, the turbidity, residual chlorine and pH were decreased and the HPC and total cell counts were increased. The t-test results revealed that the HPC of the tap waters were not significantly different from the treated waters but the total cell counts of the two groups were significantly different. The low pH of the RO filter treatment was also significantly different from the tap waters. This study will contribute to understand the role of the point-of-use water dispenser in improving water quality and to identify key water quality for the proper maintenance of the dispenser systems.
우르솔릭산은 항암, 항산화, 항염증 작용과 같은 다양한 효과를 지니고 있다. 본 연구에서는 우르솔릭산이 인간 흑색종 암세포인 A375SM과 A375P 세포에 항암효과가 있는지 확인하였다. 두 세포의 생존율은 MTT assay를 통하여 확인하였으며 증식률은 Wound healing assay로 확인하 였다. 두 세포의 apoptotic body와 apoptosis 비율의 확인을 위한 DAPI 염색과 유세포 분석을 진행하였다. 그리고 웨스턴 블로팅을 통하여 흑색종 세포의 우르솔릭산의 농도에 따른 apoptosis 단백질의 유도를 조사하였다. 우르솔 릭산의 처리 농도에 따라 흑색종 세포의 생존율 감소와 증식률 감소를 확인하였다. DAPI 염색을 통하여 우르솔 릭산의 농도가 증가함에 따라 흑색종 세포의 염색체 응축 이 농도 의존적으로 증가하였고, 유세포 분석을 통하여 우르솔릭산에 대하여 농도 의존적으로 흑색종 세포의 apoptosis 비율의 증가를 확인하였다. 그리고 웨스턴 블로팅을 통해 흑색종 세포 A375SM과 A375P의 우르솔릭산 12 μM 농도에서 cleaved-PARP와 Bax의 증가와 Bcl-2의 감소를 확 인하였다. 본 연구는 우르솔릭산의 농도를 0 에서 20 μM 수준의 저농도에서 진행하였으며, 물질 처리 후 24 시간 뒤 결과를 가지고 분석하였다. 본 연구의 결과로 보아 우르솔릭산은 흑색종 세포 A375SM과 A375P에서 apoptosis 관련 단백질들의 조절을 통해 항암효과를 일으키는 것으로 사료된다.
광에너지 상향 전환 기술(이하 Upconversion, UC)은, ‘낮은 에너지의 두 개 혹은 그 이상의 광자를 이용해 높은 에너지를 가지는 하나의 광자를 생산해내는 기술’로 비전통적인 광에너지 전환기술의 하나이다. UC 는 광자가 에너지원으로 이용되는 다양한 광학기반 기기(예 : 태양전지)의 광감응 효율을 향상시킬 수 있는 새로운 기술로 평가받고 있으며, 이외에도 Bioimaging 이나 광학센서 등에 높은 활용가치를 지니고 있다. 본 연구발표에서는 삼중항 소멸에 기반한 UC 기술의 기본원리를 소개하고 최신 기술개발 단계와 차기 환경-에너지 공학에의 응용가능분야를 살펴본다. 또한 실제로 본 연구진에서 개발한 다양한 UC 물질의 제조법을 소개하고, Sub-bandgap 에너지의 광자 조사시 UC 에 의해 광촉매가 광활성화된 연구결과와 이외의 다양한 응용분야에 대해 살펴본다.
Emission characteristics of gaseous odor compounds emitted from the charcoal manufacturing process were investigated, and evaluated the odor removal efficiency of odor control devices. It was found that the measured odor dilution ratio of emission gases ranged from 10,000 to 44,814, which exceed largely the emission standard in the stack. Methylmercaptan, trimethylamine, hydrogen sulfide, acetaldehyde were turned out as major odor compounds of the charcoal manufacturing process. It was revealed that the odor removal ratio of odor control devices were very low due to the its improper maintenance and wrong design.