The properties of powder metallurgy products are related to their densities. In the present work, we demonstrate a method to apply artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained on experimental data to predict the bulk density of barium titanates. The density is modeled as a function of pressure, press rate, heating rate, sintering temperature, and soaking time using the ANN method. The model predictions with the training and testing data result in a high coefficient of correlation (R2 = 0.95 and Pearson’s r = 0.97) and low average error. Moreover, a graphical user interface for the model is developed on the basis of the transformed weights of the optimally trained model. It facilitates the prediction of an infinite combination of process parameters with reasonable accuracy. Sensitivity analysis performed on the ANN model aids the identification of the impact of process parameters on the density of barium titanates.
Homogeneous multicomponent indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) ceramics for transparent electrode targets are prepared from the oxides and nitrates as the source materials, and their properties are characterized. The selected compositions were In2O3:Ga2O3:ZnO = 1:1:2, 1:1:6, and 1:1:12 in mole ratio based on oxide. As revealed by X-ray diffraction analysis, calcination of the selected oxide or nitrides at 1200oC results in the formation of InGaZnO4, InGaZn3O6, and InGaZn5O8 phases. The 1:1:2, 1:1:6, and 1:1:12 oxide samples pressed in the form of discs exhibit relative densities of 96.9, 93.2, and 84.1%, respectively, after sintering at 1450oC for 12 h. The InGaZn3O6 ceramics prepared from the oxide or nitrate batches comprise large grains and exhibit homogeneous elemental distribution. Under optimized conditions, IGZO multicomponent ceramics with controlled phases, high densities, and homogeneous microstructures (grain and elemental distribution) are obtained.
To improve the mechanical properties of aluminum, graphene has been used as a reinforcing material, yielding graphene-reinforced aluminum matrix composites (GRAMCs). Dispersion of graphene materials is an important factor that affects the properties of GRAMCs, which are mainly manufactured by mechanical mixing methods such as ball milling. However, the use of only mechanical mixing process is limited to achieve homogeneous dispersion of graphene. To overcome this problem, in this study, we have prepared composite materials by coating aluminum particles with graphene by a self-assembly reaction using poly vinylalcohol and ethylene diamine as coupling agents. The scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results confirm the coating of graphene on the Al surface. Bulk density of the sintered composites by spark plasma sintering achieved a relative density of over 99% up to 0.5 wt.% graphene oxide content.
In the present study, we have investigated the effect of sintering process conditions on the stability of the austenite phase in the nanocrystalline Fe-5wt.%Mn-0.2wt.%C alloy. The stability and volume fraction of the austenite phase are the key factors that determine the mechanical properties of FeMnC alloys, because strain-induced austenitemartensite transformation occurs under the application of an external stress at room temperature. Nanocrystalline Fe- 5wt.%Mn-0.2wt.%C samples are fabricated using the spark plasma sintering method. The stability of the austenite phase in the sintered samples is evaluated by X-ray diffraction analysis and hardness test. The volume fraction of austenite at room temperature increases as the sample is held for 10 min at the sintering temperature, because of carbon diffusion in austenite. Moreover, water quenching effectively prevents the formation of cementite during cooling, resulting in a higher volume fraction of austenite. Furthermore, it is found that the hardness is influenced by both the austenite carbon content and volume fraction.
Aluminum nitride (AlN) has excellent electrical insulation property, high thermal conductivity, and a low thermal expansion coefficient; therefore, it is widely used as a heat sink, heat-conductive filler, and heat dissipation substrate. However, it is well known that the AlN-based materials have disadvantages such as low sinterability and poor mechanical properties. In this study, the effects of addition of various amounts (1-6 wt.%) of sintering additives Y2O3 and Sm2O3 on the thermal and mechanical properties of AlN samples pressureless sintered at 1850oC in an N2 atmosphere for a holding time of 2 h are examined. All AlN samples exhibit relative densities of more than 97%. It showed that the higher thermal conductivity as the Y2O3 content increased than the Sm2O3 additive, whereas all AlN samples exhibited higher mechanical properties as Sm2O3 content increased. The formation of secondary phases by reaction of Y2O3, Sm2O3 with oxygen from AlN lattice influenced the thermal and mechanical properties of AlN samples due to the reaction of the oxygen contents in AlN lattice.
Piezoelectric ceramic specimens with the Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.65Ti0.35O3 (PMN-PT) composition are prepared by the solid state reaction method known as the “columbite precursor” method. Moreover, the effects of the Li2O-Bi2O3 additive on the microstructure, crystal structure, and piezoelectric properties of sintered PMN-PT ceramic samples are investigated. The addition of Li2O-Bi2O3 lowers the sintering temperature from 1,200oC to 950oC. Moreover, with the addition of >5 wt.% additive, the crystal structure changes from tetragonal to rhombohedral. Notably, the sample with 3 wt.% additive exhibits excellent piezoelectric properties (d33 = 596 pC/N and Kp = 57%) and a sintered density of 7.92 g/cm3 after sintering at 950oC. In addition, the sample exhibits a curie temperature of 138.6oC at 1 kHz. Finally, the compatibility of the sample with a Cu electrode is examined, because the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate the absence of interdiffusion between Cu and the ceramic material.
The hydrogen reduction behavior of the CuO-Co3O4 powder mixture for the synthesis of the homogeneous Cu-15at%Co composite powder has been investigated. The composite powder is prepared by ball milling the oxide powders, followed by a hydrogen reduction process. The reduction behavior of the ball-milled powder mixture is analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature-programmed reduction at different heating rates in an Ar-10%H2 atmosphere. The scanning electron microscopy and XRD results reveal that the hydrogen-reduced powder mixture is composed of fine agglomerates of nanosized Cu and Co particles. The hydrogen reduction kinetics is studied by determining the degree of peak shift as a function of the heating rate. The activation energies for the reduction of the oxide powders estimated from the slopes of the Kissinger plots are 58.1 kJ/mol and 65.8 kJ/mol, depending on the reduction reaction: CuO to Cu and Co3O4 to Co, respectively. The measured temperature and activation energy for the reduction of Co3O4 are explained on the basis of the effect of pre-reduced Cu particles.
SiAlON ceramics are used as ceramic cutting tools for heat-resistant super alloys (HRSAs) due to their excellent fracture toughness and thermal properties. They are manufactured from nitride and oxide raw materials. Mixtures of nitrides and oxides are densified via liquid phase sintering by using gas pressure sintering. Rare earth oxides, when used as sintering additives, affect the color and mechanical properties of SiAlON. Moreover, these sintering additives influence the cutting performance. In this study, we have prepared Ybm/3Si12-(m+n)Alm+nOnN16-n (m = 0.5; n = 0.5, 1.0) ceramics and manufactured SiAlON ceramics, which resulted in different colors. In addition, the characteristics of the sintered SiAlON ceramics such as fracture toughness and microstructure have been investigated and results of the cutting test have been analyzed.
In this study, the formation, microstructure, and wear properties of Colmonoy 88 (Ni-17W-15Cr-3B-4Si wt.%) + Stellite 1 (Co-32Cr-17W wt.%) coating layers fabricated by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying are investigated. Colmonoy 88 and Stellite 1 powders were mixed at a ratio of 1:0 and 5:5 vol.%. HVOF sprayed selffluxing composite coating layers were fabricated using the mixed powder feedstocks. The microstructures and wear properties of the composite coating layers are controlled via a high-frequency heat treatment. The two coating layers are composed of γ-Ni, Ni3B, W2B, and Cr23C6 phases. Co peaks are detected after the addition of Stellite 1 powder. Moreover, the WCrB2 hard phase is detected in all coating layers after the high-frequency heat treatment. Porosities were changed from 0.44% (Colmonoy 88) to 3.89% (Colmonoy 88 + ST#1) as the content of Stellite 1 powder increased. And porosity is denoted as 0.3% or less by inducing high-frequency heat treatment. The wear results confirm that the wear property significantly improves after the high-frequency heat treatment, because of the presence of wellcontrolled defects in the coating layers. The wear surfaces of the coated layers are observed and a wear mechanism for the Ni-based self-fluxing composite coating layers is proposed.
This study demonstrates the effect of addition of Fe particles of different sizes on the critical properties of the superconductor MgB2. Bulk MgB2 is synthesized by ball milling Mg and B powders with Fe particles at 900oC. When Fe particles with size less than 10 μm are added in MgB2, they easily react with B and form the FeB phase, resulting in a reduction in the amount of the MgB2 phase and deterioration of the crystallinity. Accordingly, both the critical temperature and the critical current density are significantly reduced. On the other hand, when larger Fe particles are added, the Fe2B phase forms instead of FeB due to the lower reactivity of Fe toward B. Accordingly, negligible loss of B occurs, and the critical properties are found to be similar to those of the intact MgB2.