The processing properties of spent hen and broiler chicken were investigated before and after treatment to improve texture characteristics. Each treatment consisted steaming (S) with 85℃ for 20 min, Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) with 1.5 KV/cm for 4 sec, and Super Heated Steam (SH) with an oven temp. of 300℃, a steam temp. of 350℃ for 8 min. The yield of spent hen and broiler were 66.85% and 63.80% respectively in the control, but decreased in every treatment was lowest at 61.05% in the PEF treatment (p<0.05). In the color test, L value decreased, but the a and b values increased regardless of the species of spent hen or broiler. In the test of heating loss, the S treatment of spent hen had the highest result of 45.25% but lowest of 30.66% in the SH treatment of the broiler. When it was compared with various treatments, SH after PEF treatment showed the better result in terms of heating loss than the PEF or SH treatment respectively. In the test of texture, the broiler showed the lowest hardness of 5.57 kg in the SH (p<0.05). Otherwise, the spent hen resulted in 14.08 kg of hardness in steaming after PEF, but it improved significantly to 10.73 kg in SH after PEF. In the test of 9 scored sensory evaluation of overall palatability, 7.8 point was the best score with SH treatment in the broiler. The best score in spent hen was 6.3 point which was SH after PEF treatment. With this experiment, SH after PEF was the condition in the treatments to have the better texture of spent hen.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate Aldo Rossi's work as representation or non-representation, for some hold that the works of Aldo Rossi are representative and others say that they are non-representative. According to the three kinds of novelties appearing after Stephen Pepper's concept, “the breaking of reference” happens, and Aldo Rossi's concept, “the sense of deposition” Rossi's work is uncovered as non-representation. In order to clarify Rossi's work as non-representation, we are going to borrow Pepper's terms, intrusive novelty, emergent novelty, and naive novelty. The breaking of reference accompanies intrusive novelty to bring a sense of representation, emergent novelty to intuit a sense of non-representation, and naive novelty to a sense of newness of disorder. We hope to verify a hypothesis that Aldo Rossi's architectural thought and the architecture come from ‘emergent novelty’ on the basis of his two books, A Scientific Autobiography and Architecture of the City. Also this paper discusses qualitative aspects rather than visual aspects. The main concepts of emergent novelty are applied to Aldo Rossi's works and his thought. Finally this paper verifies 'the hypothesis' through revealing what Aldo Rossi means by the quality of suspension, the sense of deposition, and idea of the unfinished(repetition). Rossi's work is not textural reference of representation appearing after blocking, but qualitative reference of non-representation.
Energy resistance welding (ERW) is a pipe-producing process that has high productivity and low manufacturing cost. However, the high heat input of ERW degrades the mechanical property of the pipe. This study investigates the effect of heat input and alloying elements on microstructure and mechanical properties of ERW pipes. As the heat input increased, the ferrite amount increased. The ferrite amount in the weld centerline was larger than t at in the weld boundary. Medium carbon steels (S45C and K55) having 0.3~0.4wt.% carbon yielded a significant difference of ferrite amount in the weld centerline and weld boundary. High alloyed steels (DP780 and K55) having 1.5~1.6wt.% Mn showed a ferrite rich zone in the weld centerline. These phenomena are probably due to decarburization and demanganisation in the weld centerline. As the ferrite fraction increased, the hardness decreased a little for the S45C steels. In addition, DP780 steels and K55 steels showed that the hardness drops when those steels have a ferrite rich zone. But we demonstrated the good tensile property of the DP780 steels and K55 steels in which Mn is included.
The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry is to suggest a positive direction for Korean architecture to pursue. In order to have the inquiry, we need Heidegger's term, 'World 3.' To discuss works of art and architecture as created is also to discuss such works as creative, that is, as realities which add themselves to the creativity of a world which is never complete except by our going with the venture of creativity, which is in Heidegger's term World 3. Through it, our ground is transformed into an ever changing but ever self-recovering World. If all of this has any fundamental significance for architecture and if this significance cannot be neglected in favor of other considerations, the work of architecture does not enter into the world as a thing of abstraction or concept. Rather, as a venture, as a tension of the 'World 3,' the work of architecture constantly brings about the transformable truth of the world.
The purpose of this paper is to apply Stephen C. Pepper's contextualism to architecture: to interpret the former in the light of architectural theory, and ultimately to liberate architecture from the Western 'Idea' and return it to its context. The major concepts of Pepper used in the paper are quality, texture, spread, change, fusion, strand and context. Pepper's contextualism makes us realize that architecture cannot be separated from its context where human beings, history, neighborhood, and nature are all interpenetrating, and create a quality. Contextualism thus teaches us to make an effort to understand the region where we belong, and to create an architectural device that interrelates form and function of an architecture with its space-time environment, or its strand, texture and context.
The first aim of this paper is to investigate and analyze Alan Colquhoun's architectural hermeneutics of tradition, 'conceptual displacement of the past.' The second aim is to overcome the limit of it, and to suggest new architectural hermeneutics of tradition, 'the reactivation of the past.' The architectural work is reduced by Colquhoun to typology or arbitrary language because he believes that without arbitrary language natural language is not able to work effectively. However, he ignores that two languages cannot be separable. When they are separated the key to natural language is understood to be an unverifiable similarity between a sense perception and its correspondence in the architectural object, while the key to arbitrary language becomes mere artificial agreement on the value and function of the linguistic sign. Therefore, natural language is appropriate only when it permits spontaneous combinations of sensory data within complex structures which emerge from, and support, complex human interaction and communication(the shining of the world and of the possibility of creative being in each individual thing). Only when architecture is translated into this kind of language, can it reactivate the world's past, and become poetic.
According to Post-modernists including deconstructivists, as Modernism is changed into Post-modernism, the paradigm is shifted from consciousness to language. The paradigm of consciousness corresponds to representational language, and the paradigm of language to self-referential one. In post-modern age most of architects are wandering what kind of language architecture is. Some theorists contend that architecture is representational, and others that it is self-referential. Allan Colquhoun, who is known as one of the best architectural theorists inUnited States, accepts both the former and the latter, but fails to reveal the meaning and the limitation, of the two languages. Although he believes that the representational language of architecture ('figure') is the source of self-referential language of architecture('form'), he never clearly answers what kind of language architecture. In order to overcome the limitation and the meaning of Colquhoun's figure and form, and synthesize the two language, this essay appropriates Martin Heidegger's some concepts, 'ready-to-hand,' 'present-at-hand' and 'being-in-the-world' to make a theoretical framework for 'image' which prevails over and synthesizes 'form' and 'figure.' Since Image is based upon both 'being-in-the world' and 'ready-to-hand,' it is the source of 'form' and 'figure.' When 'image' is fragmented, the former and the latter emerge. Image is therefore both the former and the latter because it represents and self-refers a world as a reality.