The urban form of Korean cities significantly changed in the late Chosun dynasty. The influence of commercial development was the main cause of these changes. Commerce became a important function of existing cities, and the new type of commercial towns emerged at the important spots of traffic routes. In both cases streets became dominant element of urban form. Mainly commercial buildings aggregated along the streets, and to obtain higher land use intensity shape of lots became narrow and deep. Koyang(高陽) shows the most significant example of this new type of lot and lot pattern. Approximately 30 narrow and deep type of lots lined on each side of street forming about 390 meters long linear commercial town. Similar examples were found at the outside of south gate of Suwon(水原), Nuwon(樓院), and Pangyo(板橋).
The aim of this study is to understand the original methods of architectural composition in F. L. Wright's works, For this purpose, the principal thoughts based on his organic architecture was examined over all others, and the results of this study are as follows. 1. F. L. Wright knew Taoist Philosophy, especially Lao-tzu's thought about space based on traditional oriental arts included traditional japanese arts by his superior intuition. this is similar to Froebel Thought in the principal theory, that is, his own unique field of abstract architectural education with three-dimensional geometry learned through Froebel Gifts. 2. Space is reality ; such Lao-tzu's thought, reversed the sense of values, influenced F. L. Wright's way to accomplish his own continuous space. that is to say, he attempted taking precedence of spatial organization by the unit of three-dimensional module made the substance, Froebel Blocks (3, 4, 5, 6 Gifts) into non-substance, and trying to do the methods of continuous liberal composition in architecture. which is his original accomplishment, namely his mentioned 'democratic' because of judging the space and the mold of architecture as individualities. 3. F. L. Wright treated the space as a positive entity, so that he created his own architecture organically combined with spaces and forms. : This was the result that he comprehended both formative, physical worth in West and spatial, non-physical worth in East as equivalence. It is understood that F. L. Wright's works combined with East and West are the significance of his architecture and the progress of true internationalities and modernization in modern architecture. 4. From the analyses of his works, we knew the fact that F. L. Wright's architecture, especially in the spatial organization were performed by the reasonable methods with geometric system of Froebel Gifts. In the observation of our fundamental way of thinking on his architecture, this study shows the necessity to let us get out of preconceptions and conclusions that the organic architecture is mysterious and difficult, but to systematize and put his organic methods to practical use.
The first aim of this paper is to investigate and analyze Alan Colquhoun's architectural hermeneutics of tradition, 'conceptual displacement of the past.' The second aim is to overcome the limit of it, and to suggest new architectural hermeneutics of tradition, 'the reactivation of the past.' The architectural work is reduced by Colquhoun to typology or arbitrary language because he believes that without arbitrary language natural language is not able to work effectively. However, he ignores that two languages cannot be separable. When they are separated the key to natural language is understood to be an unverifiable similarity between a sense perception and its correspondence in the architectural object, while the key to arbitrary language becomes mere artificial agreement on the value and function of the linguistic sign. Therefore, natural language is appropriate only when it permits spontaneous combinations of sensory data within complex structures which emerge from, and support, complex human interaction and communication(the shining of the world and of the possibility of creative being in each individual thing). Only when architecture is translated into this kind of language, can it reactivate the world's past, and become poetic.
The Unite d'Habitation at Marseilles was an experimental project that Le Corbusier had been waiting for since 1920s in order to explore his ideals and visions in mass housing and city planning. As a leader of the first generation members in CIAM, Le Corbusier tried to give a new form and an order to the Unite d'Habitation at Marseilles in both building design and city planning level. The purpose of this research is to investigate the design characteristics of the Unite d'Habitation at Marseilles in three different levels of built environment with a particular emphasis on the process through which an original form is derived from its contextual settings. In the level of city planning, Le Corbusier aimed to reshape traditional low-rise urban housing by deploying several Unites spaciously. Le Corbusier believed that the spacious deployment of Unites would bring us both the functional economy in the city and the natural amenity in the suburbs. As Unite d'Habitation would be called frequently as vertical garden city, the influence of suburban garden city on Unite d'Habitation is apparent. In the building level, the binomial harmony of individual-collectivity was pursued by providing three different public floors and by combining 23 different family unit types in the Unite d'Habitation at Marseilles. In order to visualize the concept of object-type, family units were prefabricated and inserted into the structural frame of the Unite d'Habitation at Marseilles. Two family units are combined to make a three-story section with street corridor in the middle. This three-story section unit is very original as it has access corridor every third floor and each unit could have considerable depth with the help of the living space of two story height. In consideration of formal and plan similarity as well as contextual edivdence, it is concluded that the three-story section of the Unite d'Habitation is derived more from Narkomfin Apartments than from the monastery at Ema or Immuble Villas.
The theory of tectonic appeared in the midst of 19th century as German architects adopted new materials and structural technology, invented by creative engineers, into architectural design. This does not merely mean a technical problem but concern the redefinition of architecture in term of an aesthetic, cultural, and ontological identity. Furthermore it alluded to a desire on the part of architectural theorists to actualize artistic and spiritual goals out of new constructional necessities. Because of their complex discourse that assumed the possibility of communication between philosophical and technical aspects, between ideal and real concerns, tectonics becomes until now the most important issue in architecture. The concept of tectonic was intensively investigated by Gottfried Semper's and Karl Bötticher architectural writings. They contributed to clarify the principle aspects of tectonic within architectural, philosophical, and anthropological discourses of 19th century. Gottfried Semper stressed an understanding of how architecture took on physical form in earliest human culture. He placed great importance on the artistic expression of materials. But unlike Semper who argued the cladding of the structural frame by decorative wall system, Karl Botticher required maximum visibility of structural frame. This represents the different positions between Gottfried Semper and Karl Botticher
There are several treatises about architectural characteristics of Hyangkyo. But those treatises usually treat with the types of site plans or structural characteristics without the historic background. So there needs the approaching methods with the historic background to study about the architecture of Hyangky. This study aims at the sample research about the architecture of Hyangkyo in beginnig period. Kyodong hyangkyo is the first building in hyangkyo. There are some architectural characteristics in this building comparing with the Hyangkyo in ripening period. Such characteristics apper in the site plan of educational spaces and in the floor plans of Myongryundang, Dongjae, Seojae. And there appear some characteristecs in ritual spaces such as the architectural structure of Daesungjun, and the position of stone establishment (Kwansedae, Saengdan) The ritual form of Kyodong hyangkyo has no special characteristics compering with the Hyangkyo in ripening period. These rictual form has kept the general rule of ritura form through the history.
After the period of the Three Kingdoms Korean transportation architecture had been changed from the characteristics of the administration organization supporting the kings ruling system and gradually the characteristics as transportation architecture had cleared and diversified in accordance with the functions and characteristics of it. With this it was found that Korean transportation architecture like YukSa(驛舍), ChamYuk(站驛), GaekSa(客舍), JinSa(津舍), DoSa(渡舍), WonWoo(院字), JuMak(酒幕) and etc. had been developed variously and the architectural characteristics had developed with the functions and characteristics of transportation architecture. Some of them ,for example YukSa, ChamYuk, GaekSa, JinSa, DoSa, had the characteristics of the government office, so they had fundamental dignity of Korean wooden architecture on tile roof. But the WonWoo which was used by all of the people from the king to the people, had the characteristics of half-government and half-private. And the space of WonWoo was divided by the social position, the sex and the difference of temperature between summer and winter. And it was mostly located at the place away from the haunts of men, the form of it was the mud wall hut of the straw-thatched cottage like Sinhyewon of Mungyungsaejae and it was different from the station building of the characteristics of government office.
This is a study on the ㄱ-shaped church in Korean Protestant churches. Since the Protestantism had been introduced into Korea, the style of ㄱ-shaped church was the popular style that have been fashioned in all the country of Korea. When the Protestantism was introduced into Korea, ideology which ruled over the Society of Chosun Dynasty was the Confucianism that emphasized the precepts, for example, the loyalty for the King, distinction between the sexes and so on. The Korean Protestants built the church which had ㄱ-shaped plan, so that they solved the second problem : 'distinction between the sexes'. The style of the ㄱ-shaped church is one of the characteristics which distinguish the Korean church from other nations'. Actually the ㄱ-shaped churches had been built by Korean Protestant denominations, from the early days of introducing the Protestantism till the end of 1920's. Even though most of the style of the ㄱ-shaped church is replaced with the modern style according to the extension of religious influence, luckily the ㄱ-shaped two churches : Kumsan Church(1908), Toodong Church(1929) are in existence in the Provice of ChonBuk. The purpose of this study is to make the architectural characteristics of the ㄱ-shaped church clear. This study is based on the actual survey of the ㄱ-shaped churches in existence: Kumsan Church, the Toodong Church and on the documents, photographs, interviews and so on for investigation not existing one now. The ㄱ-shaped church have the plan to separate men's side from women's with a right angle and have a pulpit which was placed at the meeting point of the front part of men's and women's sides. Generally, seen from the court, the churches have men's side in left and women's one in right. There was a screen blocking both sides in the church. But it disappeared in 1920's according to the change of the social conventionality. Most of its structural form is the Korean wooden style. The ㄱ-shaped church appeared in a transition period of the Korean church architecture.
Main theme of this study is the acceptance phase of western architectural culture in modern east-north asia through a series of actual survey and typological analysis of existing church buildings in modern Korea. China. Japan. For this study, 126 modern church buildings of Korea, China, Japan are selected. Also, main subject of this study has deal with the side of culture - thought which background of christianity acceptance and acceptance mind of acceptance main-body, culture adaptation and transformation based on characteristic culturalization of Korea, China, Japan. Especially, I would consistently tried to see the acceptance phase of western architectural culture according to differential acceptance mind of acceptance main-body based on characteristic culturalization of three countries. Conclusively, in the point of view of western architectural culture acceptance phase, it could be said that Korean church architecture had characterized as a blending phase of the two eclectic architectural culture. And in the case of china, as a coexistance phase of the two architectural culture with more western style-oriented. On the other hand, Japanese church architecture had characterized as a syncretism phase of the both traditional and western architectural culture, though it is eclectic style-oriented. Therefore, it is thought that different acceptance mind of western culture had main factors caused of differential acceptance phase, when the two architectural culture, the traditional and the western, encounters.
This Study is concerned with the color design of Korean and Japanese wooden architecture. The main subject of the study is to investigate the commonness and difference of color decoration between Korean and Japanese Buddhist 'Danchung' in the modern ages. In carrying this study into execution, I examined the architectural and historical backgrounds, and analysed the elements, techniques and principles of color design. The result of this study is as follows ; 1. 'Danchung' was originated from the practical functions in Chinese wooden architecture, and developed to embody sensuous beauty in Buddhist temple. The techniques and principles of color design and color tone of Korean and japanese Danchung had been similar in the ancient ages. But little by little they have differed in its function and color tone. So they are very different in modern times. 2. The dominant colors of Korean Danchung are red and green as 'Sang-nok Ha-dan(上綠下丹)', but Japanese's is only red as 'Bak-gan Juk-sun(白間赤線)' 3. Korean Danchung expresses and accentuates the important structural elements in three dimensions, on the other hand japanese Danchung takes two dimensional decoration on the unstructural elements 4. When seen in general, in Korean Danchung colors and their light and shade are simple and patternized. In the meantime, Japanese Danchung has many configurational expressions in general and is closed to paintings or picture.