Shenyang was one of the representative transportation hub of Northeast China during the modern period. The formation and development of the railway network gave great influence on Shenyang’s city development. In order to understand the relationship between railway and city development, first, we classified Shenyang’s city development period by the railway network’s formation and expansion process. Then, we analyzed the relationship between railway and city space by five categories. The results of this study are as follows. First, before railway was constructed, Shenyang was a castle city, which also was the economic center of Northeast China. This was the main reason Shenyang was chosen as a railway zone. During the modern period, the castle structure became an obstacle to city transportation and environment, therefore, it was disposed. During the period of railways’ expansion, South Manchuria, Jingfeng and Shenhai railway line was constructed in Shenyang. Since each line had different operation organizations, city sites along the railways were planned separately. However, these operation organizations had one common purpose, which was to use railway as an accelerator for economic development. During the period of railway’s military usage, railway was reorganized as military supply transport for the Japanese, which also was used as a tool for the expansion of colonialism. Second, after Shenyang’s city space was reconstructed along the railway, it created a close connection with city structure, city facilities, landscape and city transportation system. Hence, the railway system played a key role in modern city planning.
Autonomia movement that emerged in Italy in the 1960s from workerist (operaismo) communism gives historical and discursive context to Manfredo Tafuri’s famous criticism of ideology. His thesis on the death of architecture was a radical criticism of Keynesian intervention which was a strategy to cope with the Great Depression. For him, this capitalist development had taken away ideological prefiguration from architecture. At least Tafuri’s this early intellectual phase was formed in the wake of magazine Contrapiano and Antonio Negri’s influence. Tafuri almost entirely adapted Negri’s thought on the importance of capitalist innovation that was uncovered by Keynes, Schumpeter, and Manheim and the periodization in modern history. When we read Tafuri’s text with this concrete context, we can avoid being plunged into his abstruseness. On the other hand, 1980’s Korea cannot understand Tafuri comprehensibly. 1980’s situation to struggle to acquire democracy prescribed only one mode of reception of Tafuri’s historiography in Korea. Tafuri’s so-called pessimist view point could not satisfy student activists. They want to take intellectual means to sustain student movement and to secure political dynamics of protest. But at the same time they have anxiety to understand tafuri’s thesis that they consider ad a critical theory for Korean Architecture. Double contexts of Tafuri’s criticism of ideology bring to light to historicize both Tafuri’s historiography itself and reception of his text in Korea.
Imcheong-gak[臨淸閣] was a familial residence constructed in the early half of the Joseon dynasty period. It was partially destroyed by a fire during the 1590s war[壬辰倭亂] with the Japanese, and another fire that was caused between 1631 and 1634. The inner chamber[An-chae] and the Sarang section[Sarang-chae] today is the result of a partial reconstruction that took place back in 1626 and again around 1634. The residence also went through some changes because the new Ondol[溫突] heating system had to be applied to the structure. Based upon sections that remain in their original forms, we can presume that the Imcheong-gak residence originally had an inner chamber which was composed of the following elements: A main structure which was built upon a foundation featuring a Matbae[맞배] roof, two “Ik’rang[翼廊, flank]” sections on the East and West sides of the inner chamber, and a “Haeng’rang[行廊, passage]” structure on the opposite side of the main structure. Unlike the main structure, other portions of the inner chamber were all built directly upon the ground, and showed multiple stories, with Matbae roofs of their own. We can also assume that the Sarang section in the south would have been a pre-Ondol[溫突] bedroom, with a Board platform[板房] and a Gomi-ceiling[Gomi-banza] fashion.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolutionary process of Ddeulzip. The subject of this study is a clan family of Andong Kwon in Andong Area. Ddeulzip’s evolutionary process of the construction and management is divided into largely three periods in Josun Dynasty. The establishment and changing process of Ddeulzip for Andong Kwon’s family are analyzed according to three periods called the early(15∼16C), mid(17∼18C) and late(19 ∼20C). The characteristics of the early and mid period are that they created their own ancestral building form of Ddeulzip. Those of the late period are in their strong will to make similar scale of Ddeulzip. And during the late period, although the construction of new Ddeulzip was started in the early stage, no more formation of Ddeulzip was made as it approached toward the late stage. And most important point is similar constructional space(gan) of first time. The residential Ddeulzip of Andong Kwon’s family created at the 19C can be regarded as an representative example of large space that shows a typical form of housing by noble residents at the time.
This study explored the Jeollajwasuyeong Dongheon in the Late Joseon dynasty and its findings are as follows.
Buildings in Jeollajwasuyeong were completed since the mid-18th century. They formed areas based on functions and were largely classified into two areas. The buildings within Yeongseong included Gaeksa (guesthouse), Dongheon(government office), Hyangcheong(advisory organ), Jungyeong(military camp), Guncheong (county office), Gongbang(workroom), and Changgo(warehouse). There were also buildings for low-ranking government officials. The central part of Jeollajwasuyeong was the areas of Gaeksa and Dongheon. Gaeksa was iconic area where local governors served King and had 75 Jinnamgwan Guesthouses and 3 inner gates. Those were measured off by separate walls.
The Dongheon area was located in the northeast of Gaeksa. There were three gates such as Wanyeongru, Gongsamun, and Jeongbyeonmun at the entry area, which were also divided by walls like Gaeksa. Unjuheon (Dongheon) was at the center of the area where Gyeolseungdang, Mugwonjae, Naea, Chaekbang, and Gongsu were built. Outside the area, Baekwadang(used as Bijangcheong), Jinhyulgo, and Byeonggo were composed of part of the Dongheon area. Most of the buildings in Dongheon seemed to be repaired since 1664. It was difficult to locate the area of previous Dongheon.
In particular, Jinnamgwan was first built in 1599 and destroyed by fire in 1716. In 1718, the building was reconstructed and shared historic denominator with Unjuheon before 1858 and reconstructed Unjuheon in 1869.
It was found that Unjuheon was reconstructed more than at least three times, which was the central building in Dongheon. The buildings including Gyeolseungdang, Mugwonjae, and Baekwadang in the area were not existed within Jeollajwasuyeong and were reconstructed more than once and maintained until the early 1900s.