This research was to suggest the types according to structural system of the pagoda in ancient East-Asia and analyze the pagoda to the west of Mireuksaji temple site by these types. It will be possible to understand consistently the relation of the various form of the pagoda. The results of this research were described separately as follows. 1. The Buddhist pagodas founded in the ancient East Asia can be categorized according to their structural system, which provide us with insight to understand the interrelationship of categories. The pagoda is mainly classified into three categories. The first consists of two structures, an internal and an external structure. The second exposes its internal structure to the outside, and the third has the external components changing into the internal ones. 2. Although the pagoda to the west of Mireuksaji Temple Site have an internal and an external structures, it actually solves the structural problem by adopting the masonry structure in the outside as well as in the inside. Especially in this structural consideration can be found in the stylobate and the foundation structure of the pillar. The plan of the pagoda to the west of Mireuksaji Temple Site was intended to reveal the plane of the post-lintel layered construction which has a member, a main pillar, and the inner space in the cube with stones.
The purpose of this study is to understand the architectural space of Seungjeongwon (承政院), the Royal Secretariat, in the early years of Joseon Dynasty. The Royal palace can be divided into three parts, political space, living space for king and his family and offices for government official in the palace. So first, we should to understand the characteristics of each space in the Royal Palace. The result of this study is following. Seungjeongwon of the Joseon Dynasty was where Seungji (承旨), Juseo (注書), Sagwan (史官), Seungjeonsaeg (承傳色), Seori (書吏) and Harye (下隷) worked together. The architectural space of Seungjeongwon was separated into Jeongwon-Cheong (政院廳) and Juseo-Cheong (注書廳). Jeongwon-Cheong was the office for Seungji, where Sagwan worked as well as Seungji and Juseo. The form of Jeongwon-Cheong (政院廳) in Kyung-bok Palace was similar to that depicted in Eundaegyecheop (銀臺契帖), which was painted the meeting of Seungjis. Juseo-Cheong was the office for Juseo and Sagwan and there was a break room. Apart from Jeongwon-Cheong there were rooms where Seungji could work or take a rest. As with the office of Seungji, the space for Juseo also had rooms for Juseo. There were also rooms for Seori and Abang (兒房) which were rooms for servants.
This study examined the background and change of building Yeongam eupseong and characteristics and construction method of its spatial structure. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. First, Yeongam eupseong was built for the same purpose of national border defense against the invasion of Japanese army as other Eupseongs were built and it was found first in the literature in the era of King Munjong of Joseon Dynasty with the scale of three gates and 4,369 cheok of castle wall. Such a scale was continued and in particular, according to flat structure, road network and gate position shown in the map, the form and road system of Yeongam eupseong before the 19th century were mostly identical with the current ones. Second, castle wall was built over foundation by using talcum after leveling the foundation soil and castle wall can be divided into outer wall, filling part and inner wall from the section. Outer wall was constructed by inserting and layering pebbles with big irregular stone, filling part was made with talcum and riprap and inner wall with soil in several layers by keeping gradient. This building method showed common features in inserting and layering pebbles for outer wall, use of protruded base and section form compared to Jeollado Eupseong.
The purpose of this study is to understand the architectural space of Gwolnaegaksa (闕 內各司), the Government office in the palace, in the early Joseon Dynasty. The Royal palace can be divided into three parts, political space for king, living space for king and his family and government office. So first, we should to understand the characteristics of each space in the Royal Palace. Up to now we have looked at the architectural space of Gwolnaegaksa in Gyeongbokgung (景福宮), one of the Royal Palace, the result of this study is as followings. There were not many Gwolnaegaksas in the early days in Gyeongbokgung. After King Sejong, some office buildings were established in that palace. King's closest guards, like as Seonjeonkwan (宣傳官), Gyumsabok (兼司僕), Naegeumwi (內禁衛) had been on duty in Sajeongjeon Haengrang (思政殿行廊), a kind of servants´ quarters. Bincheong (賓廳), a conference room of high-ranking government officials was situated in Geungjeon Haengrang (勤政殿行廊). There were also barracks of other palace guards in Geungjeon Haengrang. Gyeongyeoncheong (經筵廳), a place to prepare and wait, was built separately from Geungjeon Haengrang Layout drawings of Gyeongbokgung painted since the 18th century were different from document in some parts. The arrangement of the Gwolnaegaksa was assumed like as the Fig. 9.
Buddhism that has arisen in India began to build the Stupa to enshrine body and Sari of Buddha as an object of worship. The stupa existed as a tome of holy leaders even before the birth of Buddha, which was called stupa or tupa in the Sanskrit and the Pali, the ancient language of India. The stupa was renamed accordingly in each Buddhism transmitted countries such as Ceylon, Tibet, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand and China and also reshaped according to their own formative style. But its original meaning and type are kept unchanged. The stupa was established in the 4 holy places including the birth place of Buddha, the place where Buddha found enlightenment, the place where Buddha preached for the first time, and the place where Buddha died. Thus, a pagoda to commemorate holy ancient places is called Chaitya, which became differentiated from the stupa in which Sari is enshrined. The stupa means Nirvana, the eternal body of Buddha, and also a place filled with teaching and preaching of Buddhism. It signifies the symbol of Buddha who escaped from the death and rebirth, to achieve complete extinction, i.e. parinirvana, and to reach ultimate eternal world, rather than simply means death. During the non-statue of th Buddha period, people built the stupa to embody Nirvana of the Buddha, and worshipped the tomb where body of holy saints was enshrined. On the other hand, they also sanctified memorial things such as tools that holy saints used, the Bo tree under which one achieved Nirvana, Dharma cakra that implied words, footprint that carried out mission work, and a way to reach to heaven.
The building for the Sutra appeared as the Sutra-belief became popular in the early years of the Koryo Dynasty. According to the written documents, there were two types of apparatus to keep sutras, one by fixing the cabinet to the wall and the other by rotating the cabinet at the center of the hall. There are no remains. Recently, at the excavation of the site of the Yeongguk Temple (寧國寺) in the Chungcheong Prevince (영동군), a building which was presumed as the Sutra Hall was recovered at the side of the Main Hall. At the center of the building, of 6meters width and 6meters depth, there was a large stone which had a round trace which was presumed to supporting the rotating sutra-case cabinet. By examining the concerned situations, this building was concluded as the Sutra Hall of the temple. The Yeongguk Temple had a close relationship with the royal household. Budddhist monk Gwangji, son of the 16th King Yejong was lived at the Temple. the tomb of King's advisory priest Wongak was also erected at the Temple. Two monks were well known as the defender of the Sutra. The Sutra Hall of the Yeongguk Temple regarded as a significant example which showed us how the archtectural aspect of the Sutra Hall was shaped in the Koryo Dynasty. It could be said that revealing the architectural aspect of the Stura Hall will help revealing the Buddhist architecture of the Koryo Dynsty which is veiled in many field.