This study analyzed 『Bukgwol Dohyeong (Drawing Plans for the Northern Section of Gyeongbokgung Palac e)』, which is an important source material for the restoration of the palace, by applying Paltaekron, the geomantic principle of bearings, in order to clarify the building layout principle of Gyeongbokgung Palace. Gyeongbokgung Palace shows the typical geographical conditions that meet the principle of Baesan Imsu (mountain in the back and water in the front) which takes Baegaksan Mountain as the main mountain and the overall layout of the buildings that meet the principle of ‘Jeonchak Hugwan (narrow in the front and broad toward inside)’ by using the natural topography that meets the principle of ‘Jeonjeo Hugo (low in the front and higher toward back).’ It is estimated that this layout and arrangement must have been led by geomantic principle of bearings. The analysis of the building layout plan of Gyeongbokgung Palace in the late Joseon Dynasty Period suggests the application of two methods: one is to divide central area from Gwanghwamun Gate to Geoncheongung Hall into eight layers and the other is to apply the bearings of the Eight Trigrams based on the building that becomes the center. As a result, the gate, main hall, and kitchen of all major buildings where the royal family lived are located in the auspicious bearings according to the geomantic principle of bearings while the spaces where people other than the royal family such as those who served the royal family and the officials operated in the palace or the hall that enshrines the ancestors such as Taewonjeong Hall are located in the ominous bearings. Therefore, the buildings of Gyeongbokgung Palace are arranged based on the geomantic principle of bearings.
The purpose of this study is to identify the form and components, decoration and locality of pyongnangans(平 欄干) in Yangban's Houses(32 Houses) in Gyeongbuk region, The results of this study, which were carried out through both survey and on-site study, are as below. First, Pyongnangans of Gyeongbuk region Yangban's Houses can be classified into 4 different types, which are ①Mureum type, ②Gyoran(交欄) type, ③ Mureum-Saldae combination type, ④Simplified Saldae type. And these 4 types are again subdivided into eight types, depending on differences of both detailed form and framework. Gyoran type are the most common cases in Yangban's Houses of Gyeongbuk region, whose number is followed by the order of Mureum type, Mureum-Saldae combination type and Simplified Saldae type Pyongnangans. Decorative 亞shaped Gyoran type are more set up in Sarangchaes than in Anchaes, and this was because Decorative Gyorans are more appropriate to show the Social status and class of a patriarch than humble Mureum type. Pyongnangans of Yangban's Houses in Gyeongbuk region have their peculiarities in the exclusion of decorativeity, by consistent use of plain single-layer Pyongnangans. A certain locality is reflected on the types and detailed forms of Pyonnangans. Mureum type are widely found in Gyeoungju region Yangban's Houses, while Gyoran type were more often used in Andong region. In Bonghwa region, Mureum-Saldae combination type are found in large quantities. This was due to the locational chateristics of Sarangchaes in Bonghwa region, which were usually built on steep slopes.
A major performance stage carpenter, Jang Insang led performance stages from the 1719 Sukjong Royal Banquet and was confirmed by historical records to be the first craftsman. Lee Wandeuk led the Hwaseong Fortress performance stages of the Jeongjo period and Gichuk Jinchan performance stages of the Sunjo period. The carpenter techniques he used during the Jeongjo period were succeeded to the Sunjo period. Ahn Sungil was the head craftsman who led the performance stages of Jagyeongjeon Jinjak, Muja Jinjak, and Gichuk Jinchan of the Sujo period, under which the foundation for court palace performances was laid. The progression of major carpenters includes Jang Insang of the Sukjong period, Jeon Yoochu of the Yeongjo period, Ahn Sugil of the Sunjo period, Yoon Seoksin of the Heonjong period, Kim Yoonsik of the Gojong period, Lee Jongyoon, Kim Soongil, Seo Sangmook, and Han Sujoon. In addition, the Major Repair of Injeongjeon Hall (1857) of the Cheoljong period was the most important palace construction project for transferring the carpenters’skills. Through this project, Ahn Sungil of the Sunjo period, Kim Myeonggap, Yoon Seoksin of the Heonjong period, Kwon Deuknyang, and Kim Sungil of the Gojong period were able to interact with each other. That is, this major repair project of Injeongjeon Hall reflected the major carpenters’best techniques through performance stage construction, showing the progression of Ahn Sungil, Yoon Seokshin, and Kim Sungil, who led the constructions of Gichuk Jinchan of the Sunjo period (1829), Mushin Jinchan of the Heonjong period (1848), and Jeonghae Jinchan of the Gojong period (1887), the most impressive performance stages of the late Joseon period. The carpenters of the court performance stages participated in important construction projects of the royal palace, reflecting the superior technical skills of the carpenters in the construction of court palace performance stages. The carpenters who played a leading role in the construction of performance stages were able to interact with one another and transfer their excellent technical skills, providing the driving force that allowed court performance stages to blossom into splendid and high-quality court stages in the late Joseon Dynasty.
Mandongmyo(萬東廟) was a shrine built for two emperors of the Ming Dynasty in Huoyangri, Cheongju. Since the 17th century, the classical scholars of the Joseon Dynasty had valued Mandongmyo Shrine as a place for the so-called Jonjudaeui(尊周大義). In 1865, however, the shrine was demolished and ruined, afterward rebuilt by King Gojong(高宗) in 1874. King Gojong played an important role in the construction plan for the new shrine, which he adjusted the layout of the building and named it. Unlike in the past, the reconstructed shrine was thoroughly led by the government, and its architectural character was greatly transformed. The reconstructed Mandongmyo was respected as the national shrine, but subjected to oppression by the Japanese imperialism. The 68 years after it was rebuilt, the shrine was destroyed on the charge of inciting the sense of national consciousness.
Pinson Hall is a dormitory building of Chosen Christian College, built in 1922, and it still remains comparatively well preserved as original form. This building is worthy in that it shows the living space of western style college in Korea, as well as characteristics of collegiate gothic style and building technology, designed by western architect in 1920s. At first, based on literate review and field survey, this study aims to trace the construction background and process of Pinson Hall, and find out its architectural characteristics with the original form when it is used as dormitory. Additionally, it deals with historic meaning and value of Pinson Hall as a modern western style college dormitory, through comparison with other dormitories in the same era. In conclusion, Pinson Hall is a Western style dormitory which allows students to accustom themselves to Western life style, using bed and desk, as well as it shows the new building technology in the early 1920s which has mixture of masonry and reinforced concrete structure.