Drago Galić (1907-1992) has been acknowledged as one of most important modern Croatia architects of the 20th century and noted for his controversial apartment buildings at 35-35a and 43-43a blocks on Vukovar Street in Zagreb, Croatia. Although the two housings were highly regarded as the best examples of the post-war housing design in Croatia, a plagiarism controversy arose due to its similar exterior looks to Le Corbusier’s Unité d'Habitation in Marseille in 1952. This research intends to comparatively analyze architectural features implemented on the works of apartment of Drago Galić and Le Corbusier's Unité d'Habitation. The analysis focuses on architectural characteristics categorized in three parts: unit plan, community space, and unit combinations. The site survey was carried out to yield more useful information for the analysis. During this process, written and photographic documentations are collected for the further interpretation. In addition, scale drawings are reconstructed for the in-depth analysis of the project.
Sajik, the altar of land and grain was treated as one of the most important national ritual facilities by the Joseon dynasty and the Ming dynasty because it symbolized the legitimacy of a dynasty, and its architectural ordonnance was arranged strictly by the government. But when the Joseon government considered to reconstruct its national Sajik altar in Hanyang during the Sejong period, they found the new architectural ordonnance for local Sajik altars recorded in 『Hongwulizhi(洪武禮制)』had been published by the Ming government was hard to adopt, because it was too narrow and totally different from the traditional style. Above all things, they doubt of there was other architectural ordonnance for kingdoms, not for local governments. King Sejong ordered to investigate the origin form and former examples, and tried to get other ritual documents of authority published by the Ming government such as 『Damingjili(大明集禮)』. After several academic researches and intense debates, they decided to create a new architectural ordonnance for their national Sajik altar, its form was in accord with the traditional style and its size was in accord with the new ordonnance. But they did not know there had already been the architectural ordonnance for the kingdom in the Ming dynasty. Because the first emperor of the Ming dynasty had changed its Sajik ritual system several times, even the whole country of the Ming dynasty also had gone through chaos on this issue even after his death. Consequentially, the official documentation works had been made partially, there was no a complete document on this issue even in the Ming government.
The present study is aimed to reconsider the time of installation and the purpose of the square footstone located at the center of the wooden pagoda in Hwangnyongsa Temple, based on related precedent studies. Precedent studies are divided into two streams of assertions: one is that the square footstone was to support the major pillars at the time of building and the other is that it was installed to store Buddhist reliquaries inside the central foundation stone after the wood pagoda burnt down in the Invasion of Mongol. Summarizing the grounds with which the precedent studies support their assertions, they are the relation with Gaseopbul Yeonjwaseok, the emerging time of the square footstone, repairing work at the level of reconstruction, additional enshrinement of general Buddhist reliquaries and so on. The present study reviewed the key grounds suggested in the previous studies regarding the square footstone. First, it was determined that the square footstone has nothing to do with Gaseopbul Yeonjwaseok, after looking into the timings of appearance, condition and shape in literatures. Rather, it was assumed that Gaseopbul Yeonjwaseok resembles a stone column. Next, the square footstone is assumed to be installed after the 4th year of King Kwangjong’s rule because the wood pagoda was lost in fire in the 4th year of Kwangjong’s rule and it had been left alone for 68 years until the repair work finished in the 13th year of King Hyunjong. It is assumed that repair works at the level of reconstruction had been twice in total, say, once during King Kyungmun and Hyunjong, respectively. Next, looking into the establishment of the general Buddhist reliquaries and the repair work during King Kyungmun, it was not common then to enshrine additional Buddhist reliquaries when repair work progressed and so there was not an additional enshrinement of Buddhist reliquaries after King Kyungmun. However, it is hard to decide that there was no repair work at the level of reconstruction at that time. Last, we can find a similar case to the square footstone of the wood pagoda in Hwangnyongsa Temple in the copper pagoda in Japanese Yaksasa Temple. In conclusion, it is assumed that the wooden pagoda in Hwangnyongsa Temple was lost to the fire in the 4th year of King Kwangjong’s rule and thus the square footstone had been used as Jinho stone to protect Buddhist reliquaries and used as a propping stone for the major pillars after King Hyungjong.
Quantitative analysis of termites damage is important in terms of conservation and maintenance of wooden cultural heritage buildings, because termites makes cavities and decreases the section area of wooden structural members. The purpose of this study is to forecast the range and spread of termites damage in the wooden structural members by using ultrasonic pulse velocity method.
Ultrasonic pulse velocity has been used as one of non-destructive test to analysis the internal defect by using difference velocity between medium material and cavity. This method would be effective to analysis termites damages. From the result of the ultrasonic velocity test, the loss rate of area effected by termites damage had a strong correlation with ultrasonic velocity. And it is possible to predict the loss rate of area from by termites damage by using regression equation in the case of structural member of fine tree.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the overall condition of the foundation for the three storied stone pagoda of Bulguksa temple in GyeongJu. As a research method, exploration of the electrical resistivity, refraction seismic, surface wave exploration, GPR exploration, Reputation loading test. The results of the investigation, the range of the foundation was formed in foundation stone outskirts of 1.5 ∼ 2.0m. It was confirmed to be about 2.0m depth. The depth of the foundation becomes shallower from the base portion to the outside. And the bearing capacity of foundation was sufficient conditions to weight. It can sufficiently support the weight of pagoda. And, the result of this investigation becomes basis data for repair work.
가회동 백인제 가옥은 일제강점기 최고위 친일실업가 한상룡이 지은 근대기 사업가의 저택이다. 한옥을 근간으로 하면서도, 가옥의 중심건물인 사랑채 영역을 사업을 위한 일본식 접객공간으로 꾸며 수많은 연회를 치러내는 등, 근 대기의 주거변화양상이 반영된 한옥이다. 이 가옥은 다음 주인인 최선익에 의해서 오늘날과 같은 배치와 구성으로 축소되었고, 보존에 힘쓴 백인제 가족을 지나 서울시의 소유가 된 후 첫 개보수공사에서 급격한 변화가 생겼다. 이에 새로 운영주체가 된 서울역사박물관은 가옥의 용도를 역사가옥박물관으로 활용하기로 하고, 우선 근대한옥으로서의 특징을 유지할 최소한의 범위부터 원형을 회복하기로 하였다. 큰 폭의 기존 공사 범위에 대한 기록은 물론, 이 부분 원형회복 연구과정에서 새롭게 세부적인 사항과 추가 사실이 확인되면서, 기존연구로 밝혀진 사항에 대해 수정 및 보완이 필요하게 되었다. 특히 사랑채의 일본식 상량문과, 건립당시 일본에서 근대화된 주택양식인 화양절충식 주택 의 특징을 수용했던 흔적의 발견은 본 가옥의 특성을 재정립하게 한 주요요인이었다. 따라서 사랑채영역은 처음부터 일본식 접객공간으로 계획된 것이었고, 배치 및 평면 구성에서는 일본식 요소를 적용한 것을 넘어 근대화된 일본식 화양절충식 주택평면의 구성방식을 수용했던 근대한옥으로 그 특성이 수정되었다. 그리고 일부 변위가 생긴 부분에 대해 구조안전에 대한 계측을 제안하였다.