Rafter is a member for roof and plays a role in protecting shaft members under rafter such as pillar, beam and girder from natural environment and to fix by supporting finished materials of roof. It is common in the Korean architecture that rafter cross-section is paired with circular form and Buyeon cross-section is paired with the square shape. However, while there are not many, some architectures have rafter end header in the square shape. The aim of this study is to examine the square shape cases of rafter end header with special reference to stone structure. As a result, among stone structure related to Bangyeon, the majority case is seen at Palgakwondang type Seungtap. It was shown in the Seungtap of monk of Gusanseonmun school in the later Unified Silla to the early Goryeo period that succeeded Seodang Jijang.
This study investigates how the spatial recognition structure is emerging through the case of rectangular plan combined with a combination of Dang-Sil(堂室) and Gong(工) shape roof, and identifies a type of architecture in the early Joseon Dynasty that has never been revealed. The conclusion of this study is as follows. First, the Dang and the Sil are connected to each other, but the architectural elements such as pillars, frame, and windows are distinguished and appear as separate buildings. Second, the distinction between Dang and Sil is evident by the difference in the number of ridges and the shape of the roof. In addition, the roof and roof framework of the independent rooms and the rooms were common in the right angled architecture where the direction and the expandability of each structure were maintained. Third, the construction of the Dang-Sil combined structure, in which two or more structure frameworks were combined with the rectangular combined flat roof structure, gradually changed into a single structure with a single ridge. Fourth, this change means that people of the early Joseon Dynasty recognized the Dang and Sil as separate architecture, but the strict sense of spatial separation has disappeared over time.
While going into troops for writing in the vignette style(小品文) in opposition to the Classical Chinese(古文), Yi Ok stopped by Songgwangsa Temple in Wanju. The things he felt during this stop were recorded in the Temple Chapter ( 寺觀) written in 1795. Therefore, the present dissertation evaluates the Songgwangsa Temple of the time based on this Temple Chapter . Data in the Temple Chapter draws attention to the fact that it records the layout of the temple in detail. Thus the study was able to confirm the change in layout by reviewing relevant records about repair. This reveals that the form of layout in general has been maintained although there were changes involving the relocation of the buildings and their names. Furthermore, the original Buddhist building was changed to a quarter for the monks. Also, in terms of layout after the 18th century, there are frequent name changes of the Myeongbujeon(冥府殿) and Nahanjeon(羅漢殿). After two repairs, in order to find the appearance of a Daeungjeon(Main Buddhist hall) with a two-storied structure of five bays at the front, the study evaluated the Geugnakjeon at Muryangsa Temple and the Daeungbojeon at Magoksa Temple. The evaluation revealed that the ‘Jeol’ used in the Temple Chapter were small pillars erected on a ridgepole just like the Geugnakjeon at Muryangsa Temple, and that the angle rafters were installed to corner bays in rectangular form. The intellectual Yi Ok left behind invaluable architectural data that reveals the Songgwangsa Temple of the 18th century.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the location and space configuration of Sauidang(四宜堂), which is a house in the late Joseon period. Sauidang was built by Hong Man-hoe(洪萬恢), the last son of Princess Jeongmyeong(貞明公主), was used as a house for Pungsan Hong clan(豊山洪氏) for approximately 150 years, and is now defunct. However, the existence was estimated through Sauidang-ji ( 四宜堂志) compiled by Gwan-am Hong Gyeong-mo(冠巖洪敬謨) in 1824.
Based on the mention that “Sauidang was located in Hundo-bang(薰陶坊) of Ihyeon-dong(梨峴洞)” and the literature referring to “the site of Myeongryegung Palace(明禮宮)”, this study estimated the location of Sauidang. Maps and photographic data in the modern age enabled us to examine the utilization cases of medium- and large-sized lots by examining the correlation with the current Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the Republic of Korea. In addition, it was possible to estimate the spatial configuration of Sauidang with a focus on words to clarify the detailed explanation of Sauidang mentioned in the literature and spatial relationship.
A very unique case is found in the architectural remains related to the north and south square-platform at the lecture hall site of Hwangnyongsa, that of Anyangsa, and the estimated lecture hall site of Beopsusa as they are not observed in the other lecture halls. The platform has been discovered at only those three Buddhist temples from Goryeo, and its case has not been found in ancient Buddhist temples of China and Japan. This study thus set out to investigate the north and south square-platform at lecture hall sites by examining in details its architectural remains at the three Buddhist temples and reviewing the Buddhist literature about the lecture halls of ancient Buddhist temples. Based on the findings, it was estimated that the architectural remains of north and south square-platform at the lecture hall sites of Buddhist temples were those of platform for Buddhist sermons or those of high chair platform. While the north square-platform involved the remains of north high chair for the Lecturer that gave lectures on the Buddhist scriptures, the south one did those of south high chair for the Reader who recited the Buddhist scriptures.