A bridge is a space used as a passage. This space should be functional, solid, and beautiful. Since the beginning of human life, bridge architecture has given importance to function as a connection from one place to another. Stepping stones in the stream were the connections between divided spaces in the agricultural life, the bridge on the entrances of a town was the place for separation, expectation, and communication for people gathering around the community. Southern Chinese provinces such as Zhejiang, Hunan, Yunnan, and Guizhon is famous for it's spectacular scenary, and tribes like the 'Miao' and 'Dong' live in a cooperate community. The 'Dong' tribe is one of the 'Yue' genealogy where the people have settled down in this place in the days of 'Qin Shi Huang(Qin dynasty)'. As the population of the 'Dong' tribe growed, they used a bridge to connect town to town. The scale became larger with additional design, giving splendid achievement to bridge architecture. The 'Fungyu bridge' in Tongdao and 'Chungyang bridge' in Sanjiang are some fine examples. The Fungyu bridge could be defined as a bridge which blocks wind and rain, this has the same function as the lounge bridge in Taishun located in southern Zhejiang province. In Taishun, 5 minority races such as the 'Dong' and 'Miao' people have been living together as a clan society for centuries on mountains as high as 1000m following their own tradition. The 'Xiliu river' flowing thorough has a variety of bridges remaining in it's original form, and it is recently known as a museum of ancient bridges. The formation of the bridges in Tongdao and Taishun shows that it is different with the arch and straight bridges remaining in Korea. In this study, it is readjusting the base data, showing plan characteristics and describing the construction of the wooden structure above the bridge post.
If we take account of the ‘Architectural Tradition’ which aims a construction of better environment, we can see that this tradition has ended historically toward Utopia. It is a continual trend from ancient Greece to contemporary epoch in each transitional periods and especially in the Renaissance Era. Utopia is an ideal commonwealth in which inhabitants exist under perfect conditions, ideally perfect places or state of things. The plans of utopia are complete projects of image, its goal is an social, political and economical improvement according to the eras. Its plans are characterized by rigid geometrical pattern as circle and square, which contain generally center․axis․symmetry․enclosure. Recent urban and architectural circumstances no longer reflect utopian visions. Since the latter of the 20th century, it appears dystopia on the contrary. Therefore, the utopian ideal city and architecture describes characteristics of the era unlike the continuity of its concept.
This study is conservation works trend since 1900. Objects for study are National Treasures and Treasures in Buddhism, in wooden architecture. And researched about the factor of conservation works, roof and tile, painting and dissolution conservation works cycle by dissolution, timber change ratio. The factor of conservation works is the most, roof and tile. Conservation works cycle by dissolution is 12.8 years. Painting cycle is 16.3 years. There are two concepts of conservation works, that is restoration and preservation. There are many restoration before 1960's. To 1960's the preservation to be many to 1970's many Restoration. And since the end of 1970's is Preservation. These reasons are conservation works history of object, the rule for Heritage protection, people on works, and study of architecture. history.
Jeoksimto which was build up as the reinforcement establishment made with the soil under the cornerstone in the site of tile-capped building is the representative construction technique which become popular in the Sabi capital era after the Wungjin capital era. Especially from the fact that no site of tile-capped building with this Jeoksimto has been found in the Silla area, we can see the originality Baekje technique. We can analogize the specialization of Josagong (造寺工) (craftsman building the temple) and the diversity of technique, on the basis of the technique raising the ground level which is different with the middle gate site of Neung-sa and the Hall enshrining Buddha site in Buyeo. Moreover, we can have the confidence the dispatch of craftsman and the transmission of building technique from the Buyeo area to the Iksan area through the fact that the construction techniques of Jeoksimto in both area are almost the same. However the concerns in the construction archaeology are necessary because almost no study for Jeoksimto has been conducted and the term of Jeoksimto also is unfamiliar even if excavation of Baekje Jeoksimto in the several remains.
There were many researches on marine transportation and granaries, most of which focused on the historical establishment and organization of the marine transportation. However, a few researches were conducted on the architectural aspects. Hence the purposes of this study are to investigate the following matters: first, documents and relics concerning the tribute granary castle at Cape Gongse in Asan, a typical granary during the Joseon Dynasty, were investigated to academically understand the castle's establishment and historical background; second, the dispositional characteristics of the granary and the castle, including its adjacent facilities, were investigated to review its archaeological value; finally, basic materials were provided for systematical preservation and management these relics. As for the research method, the author referred to and analyzed sundry records and old maps, and ascertained in detail historical evidence through residential testimonies and the on-the-spot surveys. In addition, the author investigated the dispositional characteristics of the tribute granary castle at Cape Gongse by analyzing its exact size and shape, based on the old documents and an actual survey of the castle remains. The characteristics of the tribute granary castle at Cape Gongse may be summarized as follows. First, tribute granary at cape Gongse is a only tribute granary which has a granary and castle. second, the tribute granary castle at Cape Gongse has a curvilinear shape, like a gourd dipper; a large circle surrounding the village and a small circle surrounding the area of Mt. Shinpoong both meet up with it. Third, the construction type of the tribute granary castle at Cape Gongse is in a style similar to a town castle or a battle camp castle located in the coastal regions. As for its locational conditions, however, the east gate, presumably an incoming and outgoing route to the granary for vessels, was a feature unique to the marine granary castle. Fourth, the tribute granary at Cape Gongse had a granary of eighty kan in 1523 and, in addition, there were also Bongsang-cheong, Sa-chang, Joseon-sobakcheo, Chimhae-dang, and more, not to mention many privates houses in the castle. The granary is located in the center of the tribute granary castle, where Gongse Nonghyub is currently located. The location of the government offices seemed to be on the northern ridge. Fifth, the tribute granary castle at Cape Gongse is a valuable relic that offers insight into marine transportation, tribute granaries, and tribute granary castles during the Joseon Dynasty. It has special archaeological value because it was one of only a few tribute granary castles that served to protect the tribute granaries.
Since the 17th century, the society of Joseon dynasty belongs to a period of rapid transition in many fields. As the building is a result to be produced on the basis of a society and economy, the general transition in a society is to be reflected into a process of building construction. Especially, a study on the material supply system of economic base in a process of building construction is one of very important factors in an understanding or estimate of a building. On the premise, this paper is to examine the supply system of iron materials and the tools in the construction of the government managed buildings in the late of Joseon dynasty on a viewpoint of productivity. Construction reports and other documents in those days are examined for the study. Following conclusions have been reached through the study. 1) The general supply method of iron materials for a large-scale government construction was based on 'byulgong', that is, a kind of tribute. 2) Various methods were selected in the supply method of iron materials for government use in the late of Joseon dynasty. The priority order of choice in its government policy was put on an easiness of amount security, on a minimum of expenditure, and on an efficiency of construction execution. 3) The manufacturing technique of weaponry was used in the production method of iron materials and the tools for government use. The cooperation of the official, the army, and the merchant had improved the manufacturing technique of building construction.
Jeong Woo-tae(?-1809) was a military official who had worked as Byeol-Gan-Yeok in the governmental construction works during the late 18th century through the early 19th century. Byel-Gan-Yeok, literally a special technician, was an official post in the governmental construction works that carries specific technical tasks from the mid 18th century. Over 30 years, Jeong Woo-tae had devoted himself in the construction of various royal tombs, city walls, and palace buildings. He showed superb and various techniques in the works of stone carving and architectural details. After finishing the construction of the tomb of King Jeong-jo's father successfully, he was appointed as a governor of a rural town. Being on duty of the governor, he used to participate in the construction works as a technician. He also made a couple of innovative devices in the field of construction, like a carrying apparatus, Byel-Nok-No. His works secured the setting up of the post of Byel-Gan-Yeok in the governmental construction system in the 19th century. But his technical achievement remained as his own private works rather than developing to the universal growth of the craftsmen's skill. This might be a limitation of the Byel-gan-Yeok's role, whose position was remained in the midway between official and craftsman.