The Wooden Stupa of Hwangnyongsa Temple, existed from Shilla to Koryo Dynasty, is recognized as a typical model of the Korean wooden stupa. The related records on this stupa are found in some historical documents including The Chronicles of the Three States (『三國史記』).
This study, through the interpretation of these documents, attempts to discuss and analyse design and structural methods of the stupa, viz., i) the relationship with both Chinese and Japanese wooden stupa, ii) the height, iii) each floor's linking methods, iv) the 'Noban' (Basement of the upper part), v) structure of the 'Simju' (Central pillar) and vi) the stairs and the handrails. The results of this study would be hopefully used for the further researches as well as the restoration of this precious architectural asset.
There are two main halls in the Main Palace of the Koryo Dyansty in the 11th and 12th century. One, named Hoekyongjeon, was served only for special ceremony ; hundred Buddhist priests' sermons or receiption of Chinese emperor's letters. The other one, Kondukjeon, was used as ordinary throne hall. The ordinary throne hall was built when the palace was erected at the beginning era of the Koryo Danasty, while the special ceremony hall built after the reconstruction in the 11th century. The throne hall was located at northwest side of the special ceremony hall. Audience chamber and King's bedroom were located at west and northwest side of the throne hall. The basic layout of the Palace showed unsymmetrical shape. It seemed mainly effected by its undulating terraine. The acess road from main gate to the throne hall showed zigzag way, by following a stream penetrating the site obliquely, It could be said that the Main Palace of the Koryo Danasty achieved its originality on the aspect of unsymmetrical layout and zigzag acess road, which was not found in the former palaces.
One of the main purposes of architectural history is the analysis of existing designs in order to find laws and orders of certain types, while space planning emphasizes the generation of design. In this study, relational space planning methodology is used to generate Chosun upper-class housing prototypes based on 'Yaejae' logic model. During the Chosun Dynasty era in Korea, Confucianism was the ruling ideology for its society. The patio type house was the main upper-class housing type during the Chosun Dynasty, and it can be viewed that space planning was heavily influenced by the law of 'Yaejae' in Confucianism. The logic of 'Yaejae' can be interpreted as relationships between spaces. Relational space planning methodology that reasons through constraint propagation is used to generate prototypes. Prototypes are compared in order to verify actual applications of the logic into space planning.
A study on the traditional houses of North Korea(I) have been published in 1996. This paper is written to supplement the preceding paper. This paper aims at collecting new data of traditional house in North Korea. But still being prohibited for the researchers of South Korea to approach to the field, I had to depend on the memories and experiences of the immigrants from North Korea who are now living in Kangwon and Incheon Province. Through the questionnaire and drawings, they described vivid memory of their old houses. I was able to add new data of 70 cases, which are significant and valuable as much as those of the real field are. Those data, including the exisiting data, are enough for me to analize statstically the regional charateristics, the differnces among economical classes, and the periodical change. It opens the way for verfying the existing theory. Regional charateristics of house in North Korea can be described as followings:
a. Hamkyong-do ; Concentrating spaces into one building, Double-fold type plan, Including 'cheongju-kan' space, Weak fences
b. Pyongan-do ; Concentrating spaces into two buildings, 二 shape buildings , Single-fold type plan, Strong fence
c. Pyongannam-do to Myolak mountains; Concentraing spaces into two buildings, ㄱ, ㄷ shape buildings, Single-fold type plan, Strong fence
d. Southern area of Myolak mountains; Concentrating spaces into one building ㅁ shape building, Single-fold type plan with wooden floor space
The city of Dalian has been developed under varied geo-political situation since the later part of nineteenth century up to now where a considerable mutation is taking place. In this study we tried to trace the historical evolution process of Dalien as second important port of China playing the role as center of North-Eastern Region in the field of Industry, foreign exchange, finance and tourist industry. The result reveals possibility of the city to excelerate its development under present circumstances toward the opened system of economical policy.
This study has been researched mainly about the gradual changing patterns of site plan and plan layout of 17 sampling traditional houses in kyungpuk province during the time period of 1877-1945. The objective of this study is to closely examine the characteristics of locality and trend of the times. Survey and Measured drawing, personal interviews with clients has been carried out and the result is as down below; 1.The certain changes have shown that the furnace in sarangchae(outer wing for men) in ㅁ shaped and 『』 shaped houses served only for that purpose and inner gate has been built in sideward of sarangchae. 2.As living standard was upgraded storage space and size of the rooms got bigger. On the other hand, spacial formation was emphasized by its function accordding to house activities and living circulation because the family members in direct line became reality of the time. 3.The modernistic thought of rationalism and convenience are well expressed in the plan layout and house living as a whole.
The perspective representation and its effect that appeared in the tombs and mural paintings of koguryo are summarized as follows: First, The inside structure of the tombs is likely to show the deepness effect, placing each function in the front and both sides centering around the mane pillars and creating the boundaries and the spaces that have various visibility between the inside and outside spaces of the structure just like a traditional Korean house shows. In addition, The deepness effect is emphasized by suggesting that the spaces are countinued with a storage attached behind the main house or by forming the level and deployment in a narrow space like the scene that a large array is looked out from the main house. Second, The deepness effect is expressed by making the form of ceiling turn to a vertical space of an ascending image, constructing it just as the lotus lamp ceiling of a wooden architecture or drawing it just like the imaginary heavenly world with the sun the moon and mythical fairies and animals spread in it. Thried, The perspective effect is disclosed by drawing the mural pictures in an equally set bird's-eye view without regard to the disfance proportion according to the conceptual visualization which is not a visual penetration, adopting the multiple view points and moving view points that are moving around as an important manner of seeing. Fourth, The deepness effect is emphasized through the scene of changing spaces when they are looked out far or looked into depending on a viewpoint of the daily life by forming the fromes of paintings that we made up with actual pillars, Du Gong, crossbeams or that are painted in most tombs. Fifth, The rich spatial senses are reflected by originating the characters of the three directions, level, deployment and ascending. An example which can support the conclusion of this study can be given here. that is, the construction ground plan of a dwelling house of a nobleman at the end of Koguryo as a remain which was excavated at Dongdae Ja in Jip An.
Le Corbusier had developed the Modulor replacing the Regulating Lines in the 1930's and 1940's. The lines can not produce lyrical ideas or creational concept but make plastic dimension pure only to keep in balance. First, the Grid of Proportions was developed and then the Modulor 1. The Modulor originated in one square, double square, the two golden means added or subtracted, the place of the right angle, human dimension, the Fibonacci series and divided Red series and Blue series. He developed the Modulor 2 for a reconciliation between the foot-and-inch system and the metre. As Corbusier devoted himself to a social and industrial problem, he was sure that a transcendental universality be in cosmos including a human being. His dream was to creat a orderly and harmonious utopia. What intrinsic harmony between Cosmos, nature and a human being be realized by mathematic order was the reason he hinted himself to the proportion.
This study aimes to understand the principles in Theo Van Doesburg's architectural concept. Generally, Theo Van Doesburg has been thought that he betrayed De Stijl by acting contrary to the Neo-Plasticism which was constituted in early De Stijl by Mondrian and himself and by suggesting opposite one, Elementarism. Therefore this study tried to understand the principles that make his architectural concept, confirming the background of Elementarism. After studing relation, which Theo Van Doesburg has used, between space and color, it is concluded that he has unchanged principles of architectural concept from early De Stijl to last, opposite to general appreciation. So, Theo Van Doesburg acted to maintain equilibrium that exists for balancing the two elemental forces which contrast each other in relation between space and color. The equilibrium which he looked for aims to constitute harmonized dynamic space by dynamic rythem of equilibrium instead of Neo-Plastic effect. And using color, which used to be producing dynamic effect, he intended to maintain static effect for making dynamic rythem of equllibrium by the principles he made.
The process of interpretation comprises the passage from blindness to pre-canonical responses, then the canonical interpretation and its dissemination. and finally silence and oblivion. But oblivion does not necessarily imply the conclusion of the interpretative process of work. A reinterpretation may follow. This study aims at searching the source of reinterpretation of Ronchamp Chapel. I analyzed the canonical interpretation. the site, function, and form of the chapel. I concluded that the contextualism, semiology, regionalism and other architectural conception may be the frame of reference for reinterpretation of Ronchamp Chapel.