The architectural influence from the Yuan had impact on the Goryeo Dynasty in earnest during Yuan intervention period in the 14th century. The representative examples which were influenced by the Yuan architecture are the Eungjinjeon in Seongbulsa(成佛寺) temple, the ten-story stone pagoda of Gyeoncheonsa(敬天寺) temple site, the Bogwangjeon in Simwonsa(心源寺) temple, the Hoeamsa(檜巖寺) temple and so on. Notwithstanding the changes of relationship between two countries, it can be comprehended that there was a selective acceptance of the Yuan architectural peculiarities in Goryeo Dynasty. It means that the adoption of foreign culture in Korea has not been inevitable from the unilateral demand, but been autonomous by perceiving as the advanced culture. This tendency was maintained even though the government had been changed.
The color that painted on the ground of Dancheong becomes Gachil(basecoat)-Dancheong and underpainting of Moro-Dancheong or Geum-Dancheong. So, the color of underpainting is the most important element that determines impression of the building. Thus, the architecture after using “Sangrokhadan” has different characters from what it had been. In the existing perception toward the background color of Dancheong, it was considered the characters of Korean Dancheong so-called “Sangrokhadan” that paint vertical elements like columns red and upper part of the columns green. But this study examined the color of Dancheong according to the era and region before and after Goryeo Dynasty era, then it reveals that Sangrokhadan technique was applied from the 14th century in the late Goryeo Dynasty. One of the Goryeo architecture, Geungnakjeon Hall of Bongjeongsa Temple is thought to be a previous style that is not applied “Sangrokhadan” technique because old elements are painted red pigment.
The purpose of this study was to comprehend the procurement system of iron materials and the production process of ironwork in royal tombs constructions in the later Joseon period. For this purpose, sixteen Sanneung-uigwes were analyzed. The following conclusions have been reached through the study. First, it was procuring five types of iron materials in constructions of royal tombs. Sincheol had been supplied up to the mid- 18th century. On the other hand, the amount of jeongcheol was increased rapidly. Because of the procurement system of initial tools was changed from bokjeong(a kind of tribute) to self-production in the Noyaso. Second, the government stockpiles were utilized as much as possible than bokjeong to manage the limited construction period and sudden construction start. Third, before moving the site of tombs, the melting furnace was installed in the Gungisi(armament factory). The amount of the melting furnace was increased from 5 to 8 since producing the initial tools in the Noyaso. Fourth, six kinds of master artisans were worked in the field of producing ironwork. Metal worker was assigned to one person per melting furnace. Fifth, the quality of final iron materials was controlled by use. Since the 19th century, it had been produced enhanced ironwork.
This thesis mainly deals with how ‘count of Ryang’ was used in the Daehan Empire. Count of Ryang means how many purlins were used in the building with longitudinal section. As a result, the notion of Ryang in the Daehan Empire does not differ from now one. But the usages of that are different from the Joseon Dynasty, and from the present. In the Daehan Empire, count of Ryang mainly was appeared with another word, count of Kan. In the Joseon Dynasty, they used the count of Ryang combined with Kan. Count of Kan had the meaning of purlin-directional length. By doing that, count of Ryang indicates the size of flank, count of Kan indicates the length of front. But in the Daehan Empire, count of Kan, especially the beam-directional length was considered at first, and then count of Ryang. Separately they used another count of Kan meaning the area of building. By using the combined words, count of Kan and Ryang in the beam direction, they got focused on the frame of wooden structure than before.
Since the recent Hanok boom in Korea, Contemporary Hanok has been evolving in terms of structure, space, form, etc. To get a comprehensive understanding of the diversified Contemporary Hanok, this paper aims at its type classification by analyzing architects’ designs since 2000. The criteria for the classification are two: (1) renovation [Re] or new construction [New]; and (2) degree of Contemporary Hanok’s deviation from the traditional Hanok’s standard ― maintaining the traditional form [Main]; changing space within the traditional form [Space]; changing the traditional frame [Frame]; and juxtaposing the traditional and the modern [Combi]. From the two criteria, this paper deduced eight types of Contemporary Hanok, named respectively: Re-Main, New-Main, Re-Space, New-Space, Re-Frame, New-Frame, Re-Combi, and New-Combi, and studied their cases. It can be argued that various aspects of Contemporary Hanok and their critical meanings were well-investigated through this type classification and case-studies.
The Korean architect Chung Guyon(1945∼2011) is the translator of the Korean edition of Gourna: A Tale of Two Villages(1969) written by the Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy(1900∼89). This fact, along with the facts that Chung changed the topic of his graduation thesis(1983) for UPA no.6 in Paris and that he became a supporter of earth architecture after he returned to Korea in 1986, confirms that Chung was strongly influenced by Fathy’s architecture in Gourna project. Therefore, the present paper aims at extracting didactic characteristics of Fathy’s architecture from the book and comparing them with those of Chung’s architecture. The categories of the characteristics extracted from the book (or his architectural activities in the Gourna project) are: clay/earth architecture; communicative and cooperative architecture; and critical stance towards society, and these are commonly found in Chung’s architecture, too, not without differences from Fathy’s owing to the gap between the two architects’ contexts. Reviewing these characteristics, this paper argues that Fathy and Chung tried to improve society in each context, working as both architect and social activist.
This paper examines the pagodas during the Bagan period, which are thought to be most valuable among those in Myanmar. They have not been sufficiently studied, in spite of their high Buddhist status. It considers the contemplation of Pato, their formal characteristics in the Bagan period and the formal categorizations of pagodas in the same period. Thus, following seven kinds of conclusions are derived: first, researchers provide opinions to the Pato which should be regarded as the Buddhist shrine-type of pagoda with a unique Bagan form, symbolically indicating that Theravada Buddhism incorporated Hinduism; second, the terraces were characteristic components in pagodas, during the Bagan period, which were built after the enthronement of King Anawratha and are thought to symbolically express the wish to widely spread Theravada Buddhism; third, Shwesandaw Zedi seems to affect not only Shwezigon Zedi, a representative standard form of pagoda in Myanmar, but also Ananda Pato; fourth, it is thought to be proper to examine the terraces by classifying them into lower, central(from pedestals to Angryeon and Bokryeon) and upper part, if it intends to divide a pagoda with bell-shaped body on the terraces during the Bagan period, into three parts; fifth, the Pato may be identified as a form of pagoda during the Bagan period, and such a form can be classified as that of Sikhara on the rectangular terrace; sixth, forms of Myanmar’s pagodas can be classified into fourteen kinds of them, and they may be also grouped into transmitted, general and special type; and seventh, on the basis of the findings, it is thought that the pagodas during the Bagan period may be classified into six forms, and they can be largely categorized into transmitted, general and special type.