Integrated-Salmi can be suggested as a character of Da-po type Kong-po in Korea’s traditional architecture. However, only few studies are made on this subject yet. This study is to investigate the integration process of Salmi through cases of certain Kong-po which have the same number of inner and outer Chul-mok and are also known to precede in time. The results of the study are like below. First, Integrated-Salmi is more dominant in inner and outer 3 Chul-mok Kong-po than in inner and outer 2 Chul-mok Kong-po. Second, While inner and outer 2 Chul-mok prevail in Yeong-nam region, inner and outer 3 Chul-mok prevail in Ho-nam region. Third, integrated Salmi of Inner and outer 3 Chul-mok, first appeared in internal Jusangpo to be carried over to internal Juganpo then eventually to outer Salmi. Fourth, the reason why integrated form precede in internal salmi of inner and outer 3 Chul-mok Kong-po is due to 2 main factors. First of which is the impact of integrated Boaji that developed in Da-po type since the early 16th century. The second factor is downward expansion of Cho-gak’s Boaji which was adopted to cope with disorders made in structure of Chum-Cha, due to inner and outer 3 Chul-mok type buddhist temples’ wide reconstruction throughout Jeolla region following the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592. This study is to disclose the regularity of development process of Salmi’s Cho-gak(草 刻) which is a characteristic of Korea’s Da-po type Kong-po.
The founder of the ‘Paik In - Je House in Ga Hui Dong’ in the Bukchon Hanok Village was found as Han Sang- Ryong (1880.11.14. ~ 1947.?) and the time when it was built was by the late June in 1913. Han Sang Ryong was the director of the HanSung Bank during the Japanese colonial period and he was the industrialist in the management committee and the economy coordinator in the economic area. The way how he could accumulate the huge amount of money was because his Uncle Lee Yoon Yong and Lee Wan Yong brothers were participating in various concessions under the protection of the colony government such as Chosun colonial government. Through seven years of preparation for building the mansion, the social function he presented to his house was ‘the house built for the banquet hall’. He invited many celebrities of politics and economy to this house and built his fundaments for his social activity through interactions. To solve the construction concept, he used the way of ‘duplicity and juxtaposition’, and his mansion was reborn as a modernized urban Hanok through the reinterpretation by his program out of the old Confucian rules. Han Sang Ryong’s mansion is significant and valuable in the period since it was a pioneer in challenging the creative housing in the developing stage of Hanok in early modern era, and the highest social level people were trying to show off through the Hanok as a product.
This paper looked into the structure of and changes in the building process of Gijang mountain fortress and its receiving reservoir by analyzing data from an excavation investigation. The structure of the receiving reservoir may be classified into a flat form, stone sheath, floor facility, wall facility, and entry and exit facility. The flat form of the Gijang mountain fortress and receiving reservoir is round. Concerning the sectional form, the wall was obliquely excavated in the trapezoid. As a stone sheath building method, it was built by undertaking a range work of oblong stone materials in a clockwise direction on a stamped soil floor. Then, it was treated with stamping using double layers of gray clay and yellowish brown clay on the floor and the wall. Also, in a space between the stamped layers on the floor, herbal plants and a straw mat were laid for waterproofing as well as to prevent sinking. As an entry and exit facility, two facilities were confirmed symmetrically in the southeast and in the northwest. It is believed that they were built additionally during rebuilding after the initial construction. The building process was revealed to have been carried out in 8 stages. Given the structure and excavated remains, the building period is estimated to be the early to mid 7th century for the initial building, the later 9th to 11th centuries for the primary rebuilding, and the later 16th to early 17th centuries for the secondary rebuilding.
Unlike the extrinsic Modern Functionalist, Louis I. Kahn, a modern American architect, had been pursued intrinsic architectural nature based on historicity; The Essence of Architecture, during his lifetime. That is the reason why he is generally called as one of frontiers toward Post-Modern Architecture. However, the actual meaning of his ‘The Essence of Architecture’ is so vague and unclear until today, because not only his complex personal thought and career but various and subjective interpretation by so many later architects and architectural theorists. In the context, this paper attempt to reanalyze and clarify Kahn's idea of ‘The Essence of Architecture’ with the deep and objective view of aesthetics focused on a distinguished contemporary German philosopher, N. Hartman’s idea of phenomenological relation and the stratified structure of a work of art.
Jedoguk and Jaesiljaesanjeongriguk were the offices related to the reorganization of the royal finance during the Residency-General period and surveyed royal facilities. Jedoguk surveyed palaces, offices and royal ritual facilities in the manner of traditional survey. However, Jaesiljaesajeongriguk which is the successor office to Jedoguk surveyed royal facilities using the modern surveying techniques and figured out the value of royal facilities. In 1908, most of the royal facilities were nationalized and were managed as government property by Takjibu. These nationalized royal facilities were used new modern facilities under the rule of Japanese.
This study aims to find architectural characteristic of Nam-kwan-wang-myo as known as Nam-myo, Especially focusing on difference between before and after it’s reconstruction in 1899. Nam-kwan-wang-myo is a shrine for Kwan-woo who was warlord in ancient china. Belief of Kwan-Woo was introduced to Korea in Japanese invasion of 1592 and the shrine was built in 1598. Belief of Kwan-Woo diffused for the late Joseon. during the reign of Gojong, many people have faith in Kwan-Woo including the king. There was four Kwan-wang-myo around the Hanyang at that time. In 1899 a fire of unknown cause broke out at Nam-kwan-wang-myo, so the main buildings burned down. The king instructed reconstruction of the shrine even though there was in financial difficulties, it had done in the midst of a national crisis. The buildings almost restored as before. The buildings in the shrine has strong characteristics of Chinese architecture because it made by people of the Ming dynasty. Two side-by-side roofs, accumulated brick exterior are important architectural feature, but also all the buildings in the mail hall area Surrounded by the closed-connected fence is hard to find examples in Korea traditional architecture. And Nam-kwan-wang-myo just had maintained architectural characteristics including layout of buildings, shape of the each building until it’s reconstruction(1899).