The purpose of this study is to examine the construction industry of Korea from the 1920s to the 1930s by analyzing activities of construction-contractors trying to overcome the recession of the construction industry and intensified competition in the industry. In this paper, I looked at the activities of Hanazono Sakichi as concrete examples. First of all, with the strategy of the vertical integration, by manufacturing and selling building materials, Hanazono Sakichi expanded his company and the scope of contract business. The second, he attempted to diversify related projects. Through related diversification, he seemed to have earned not only land management profit but also advantages from related construction. These aspects were not only seen by Hanazono’s activities but also by other contractors’. On the other hand, a few contractors have taken over a trust company to secure the funds for land management. Attempts to maximize personal interests through the expansion and diversification of contractors' business can be seen as overcoming the pre-1920s environment, where almost construct works were ordered under the government, and creating opportunities for the private sector to work and make profit by themselves. In the end, it can be mentioned that ‘the contractor’ established ‘the construction industry’ through this process.
In the early of Joseon Dynasty, Royal Tomb developed from stone chamber tomb to lime chamber tomb through precedents. The lime chamber tomb consists of main-chamber(JeongGwang) and sub-chamber(ToeGwang). This separation makes character to construct tumulus of the Royal Tomb half and half. By this character, the Royal Tomb are not constructed by separate structure but constructed by coadjustment. The underground structure and tumulus of the Royal Tomb affect each other in the size and method of construction. The selecting type of Royal Tomb is generally made decision through terrain and politics. This study prove the architectural structure is also one of the major cause the that select type of Royal Tomb.
This paper aims at the examination on the fallacy of the name of ‘Dadaepo-gaeksa’. The results are as follow: The so called ‘Dadaepo-gaeksa’ was one of the official buildings of Dadaejin, the naval forces in the late period of J osun dynasty. The building was moved to Molundae near the original site in 1970. And two years later, it was designated as a cultural asset. However it’s real name is ‘Dadaejin-dongheon’, because Dadae-jin gaeksa was demolished about the time of the foundation of Dadaepo-elementary school. Otherwise, Dadae-jin donheon was used as a school building from 1904 to 1970. Futhermore, the architectural style of the existing building is different from the general gaeksa’s in the period of J osun dynasty. Therefore, the name of Dadaepo-gaeksa needs to change into Dadaejin-gaeksa and to restore as its original style.
Seonjeong-jeon, the semi-great hall in Changdeok Palace, was constructed in a highly formal and conservative style and accommodated official ceremonies. However, the contemporary modification of the building has distorted or eliminated features including the two side doors on the front, the floor coverings, and the throne base (Jwa-tap) that consisted the most significant part of the throne. Seonjeong-jeon originally had three doors that stood between each pair of columns on the front side, respectively. The courtiers accessed the building through the side doors, while the central door was exclusively designated for the king. However, the renovation in 1999 ignored the political context of the architectural form of the building and changed the side doors into windows, damaging the traditional structure inherited from the early Joseon Dynasty. Although the building currently has traditional wooden floor structure (Woomul-maru), it was originally covered with square brick tiles (Bang-jeon) before the Japanese occupation, following the customs of early Joseon Dynasty. The throne was placed to the north of the central door and consisted of the throne base and a decorative roof (Dang-ga). A canvas (Jang-ja), which featured the royal symbolic painting of Sun, Moon, and Five Peaks, was also installed between the two columns that connected the base and the roof. Nevertheless, only the columns and the blank canvas remain nowadays after the removal of the base.
This study focuses on the architectural changes of stele pavilion at the royal tombs of Joseon Dynasty. Throughout the survey on overall forty two stele pavilions, they were classified into basic type, expanded type, and 4-side corridor type. Basic type was usually used for general small stela, while expanded type was for extraordinarily large ones. 4-side corridor type, however, turned out to be used for both small and large stela and has appeared only during King Gojong period(高宗年間, 1863-1907). When it was first applied at Geonwolleung(健元陵) in 1870s, the purpose of 4-side corridor type seemed to stabilize the enlarged structure due to the size of the larger stele. Later, 4-side corridor type was repeated for small stela at Hongneung(洪陵) and Yureung(裕陵) in 1898 and 1904 respectively, to express higher dignity of Daehan Empire(大韓帝國). This type of plan continued to other pavilions in the center of Seoul such as Kinyeombijeon(紀念碑殿) and Seokgojeon(石鼓 殿) that were built in 1903 with sophisticated proportion and multiple brackets. This architectural change implies that stele pavilion itself has become more significant than stele inside.
The palace byeoljeon(別殿), the King’s non-ceremonial space, were created as a space for the king to comfortably use and for the king to do what he wanted to do. The byeoljeon housed various types of spaces and were flexible in that they could be repurposed to meet the demands of the times. Nevertheless, their characteristic as palatial building created for the King’s convenience has remained unchanged. In this study, we examine the process by which such royal spaces were created by focusing on the reconstruction of the Changdeokgung Huijeongdang during Japanese occupation period, with a view to continuity and the transformation process. The reconstruction of Huijeongdang at the time may be considered along internal and external characteristics. Internally, Huijeongdang connected the symbolism of the king’s space as the palace byeoljeon. Externally, Huijeongdang is characterized by its mixture of traditional and western style, where western style structures were housed within traditional buildings. The plans for the block of Huijeongdang also included the coexistence of traditional building, western style building, and mixture of traditional and western style building. This reflects the characteristic continuity of the byeoljeon as well as the architectural techniques of the time, manifested together within a specific spatial block.
There are stone sculptures diversely shaped in several parts of Gyeongbokgung. Geunjeongjeon is a place where the stone sculptures are intensively placed among the various palace buildings of Gyeongbokgung, and it is more important because it contains the phases of the age of the dynasty and the symbolism of governing philosophy. What can be seen in the structure of auspicious animal sculptures is based on the form of instinctive thought that the heavenly and human order systems are in an organic correspondence with each other, especially with regard to astronomical events such as Samwon‐Sasin‐12jisin‐28su. The parts that have been interpreted only in Sasin and 12jisin in the interpretations such as wild dogs, Gyoryong, camels, wolves, and apes were able to clarify the contents by revealing the form of 28su. In particular, as Beopsu‐Ssangbeopsu at the corner may be related to the guardian deity who governs water, called Yimun, Chimi, and Chimun, it is one of Bibo's ways to protect the palace that was vulnerable to fire. In addition, the shape of the existing 28su placed Dambi, but Ha‐Woldae at the Geunjeongjeon was assumed to have a camel statue and a planned arrangement of double meaning with the Bibo form of Pungsu Sasinsa, and it is also a feature of the arrangement of Woldae at the Geunjeongjeon. The actual composition of auspicious animals at the Nambogye of Geunjeongjeon was in the order of Haechi, wild dogs, horses and Jujak, and the contents of “Gyeongbokgung Construction Daily Record” were in the order of Haechi, horses, wild dogs, and Jujak. As to different composition layouts, based on the contents of the “Gyeongbok palace Construction Daily Record”, the composition of Samjae Cheonjiin (天地人) was interpreted differently from the conventional interpretation of the arrangement of Woldae. All of these forms are associated with defense systems in the four directions and have become animal representations of each direction. The auspicious animal statues placed on the railing of Geunjeongjeon Woldae can be seen as reflected in a single building with the three‐dimensional personality that includes Pungsu's Bibo personality with the symbolic meaning that reveals the centrality as Jeong‐Jeon, the nation's best politics let alone the ideological system of the ancient astronomical of the East called Men‐Heaven Unity.