Gimlyong-sa temple has played an important role of Buddhist culture in Gyeongsangdo Provinces(嶺南地域) in the late Joseon Dynasty as the 31st head temple(本山) in the Japanese occupation. There are lots of architectural documentary records remained nevertheless, most of cultural heritages are destroyed by fire in 1997. There were 85 articles in five kinds of books which contained historical achievements of Gimlyong-sa temple and hermitages(Daeseongam(大成庵), Hwajangam(華藏庵), Yangjinam(養眞庵), Geum seondae(金仙臺), Dosoram(兜率 庵), Myeongjeogam(明寂庵)). It is possible to understand the five situational peculiarities in the 17∼19th century. At the first, they were compiled in 1914 to around 1930 by Kwon Sangro(權相老) to clarify the historical facts. Second, confirmed the formation process of the foundation narrative. Third, the meaning of Seolseondang(設禪堂), Manseru(萬歲樓) and Hyangnojeon(香爐殿) were recorded, it is possible to look at the concept of people at that time. Fourth, the great masters portraits were enshrined in hermitages, not in Gimlyong-sa temple. It means that a hermitage is not for only self-discipline or living but assembly of religious orders(門派). Fifth, Chimgye(枕溪), the great Buddhist clergy and carpenter of Gimlyong-sa, was nationwide active worker in 19th century because he was also in a charge of investment manager for construction.
This study aims to investigate the architectural characteristics of the Da-bo stupa by examining the correlation among architectural languages and by studying the features of its architectural components and transitional changes shown in Da-bo stupa line drawings in Dunhuang Mogao Grottes. The results are as follows. 1st, the Da-bo stupa of Dunhuang faithfully follows the sutra of lotus, and although the form changes, the fundamental essence of Bo-tap-yong-chul and two seated Buddhas provided by the Gyun-bo-tap-pum in the sutra of lotus is consistent. 2nd, the pagoda body can be periodically divided into parasol, stupa, and royal palace types. The parasol type has an incomplete tower body, which makes distinguishing each of its architectural components difficult. The stupa type appeared between the early (AD 618–712) and middle (AD 766–835) Tang dynasty. It combines the form of Indian stupa type and East Asian wood structural architecture. The royal palace type, which appeared between the peak period of the Tang (713–765) and Sung Dynasties, shows the standardized pattern of the Da-bo stupa described as two seated Buddhas and Bo-tap-yong-chul. 3rd, the use of a stylobate does not appear in the early construction of Da-bo stupa, only in the later period, in the form of high pillars. Forms include many Su-mi-jwah and three-way stairways and Dab-do, but as time passes, the forms are simplified to the form of high pillars. 4th, the purpose of early Da-bo stupa was to provide space for Da-bo-yu-rae of Gyun-bo-tap-pum; hence, it did not have sangryoon(the top part). However, after it was influenced by general pagodas, sangryoon was established. Toward the Tang Dynasty, sangryoon has come to emphasize the forms of boryoon(nine wheels) or dome. However, this form is eventually simplified to only retain bo-joo(the orb).
This paper aims to examine the constructional background and process of the Japanese military installations of Jisim-do, especially based on the military secret documents. Furthermore, it aims to analyze the characteristics of the remains. First, the study looked into the procedure of forcible occupation by Japan, involving the background of the designation and forcible accommodation of military reservations, and forced eviction by the purchase of land. Second, the study identified the background of construction, purpose, and construction period of each battery built throughout the ‘Fort maintenance period’ according to changes in international situations. Third, it is the 'Chukseongbu' that supervised the construction of fortresses. Fourth, the study considered a series of arrangement processes in which Jisim-do became a fortresses through『Yukgunsungdae-ilgi』, a military operations report for the Japanese army. Through this, it discovered a clear construction process, construction details, and the supply for Jisim-do. The study was also able to reveal the meticulousness in constructing firm facilities more promptly from the ‘design tactics’.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the foundation and subsequent reconstruction years of Unsoo-sa Daeoong-jeon in Busan, especially based on the five records of this building. Moreover, this paper aims to analyze the possibility of the architectural type changes by comparison with nearby Buddhist buildings. The results of this study are summarized as follows. First, Unsoo-sa Daeoong-jeon was built in 1655. Afterward, it had been repaired through five times, but most members of it's wood-framework were found to had been prepared and constructed in 1655. Second, such as the gongpo type, roof type, module system, intercolumnar distance and proportion of intercolumnar distance and column-height, the architectural type of this building is similar to nearby Sinhung-sa Daekwang-jeon. This was because the identical monk-craftsmen carried out the many constructions of nearby temples with their architectural skills at the same period. Third, in particular, the style and created-time of the front gongpos are different from those of the rear gongpos. That is why the front gongpos were replaced when Unsoo-sa Daeoong-jeon was reconstructed in 1771.