The purpose of this study is to find framework schema of early Jusimpo-style Buddhist halls (Geungnakjeon Hall of Bongjeongsa Temple, Muryangsujeon Hall of Buseoksa Temple, and Daeungjeon Hall of Sudeoksa Temple ). Though the halls are known as built in the late Goryeo Period, they show the influence of the architectural style of the early Unified Silla Period. To find the adopted modules and proportions of these halls, this study conceived a schematic diagram based on the whole frame structure taking reference from the Cai-Fen system in Yingzao Fashi . In these three halls, the heights of each cross-beam (Dori ) are made up by the layers of member and member units. This study computes the values of Cai, Zhi, and Fen which can apply to both the section and the plan. The vertical section structure is determined by combining the standard member heights (Cai ) and the standard unit heights (CaiZhi ). The bays of columns are made by multiples of the standard member width (Fen).
Simgok Seowon is the commemorative shrine and academy established for scholar Jo Gwangjo (pen name : Jeongam). The shrine (sangnyangsik) and the east and west dormitories (Dongjae and Seojae) were built in 1636. The lecture hall, Imsimnu Pavilion, Sananggak and Munhyanggak buildings were built successively. Simgok Seowon is the only one that survived through the abolishment of seowon ordered by Regent Heungseon in the 19th century.
The original seowon was renowned as a representative example showing the typical lecture hall in front and dormitory at the back (jeondanghujae) layout of the Giho School built in 1650. Two archaeological excavations were conducted in the lecture hall courtyard in 2004 and 2007∼2008, which prompted debates the position of the dormitories in respect to the lecture hall, whether the dormitories should be placed in front, or at the back of the lecture hall. Simgok Seowon had been long known as a representative example of the lecture hall in front layout, but the excavations revealed contrasting evidence, suggesting the possibility for a dormitories in front layout.
Recent studies and evidence show that the architecture of Simgok Seowon can be grouped into three phases. The first phase was when the shrine and both dormitories were built to the rear of the lecture hall, the second phase was when the lecture hall, Imsimnu Pavilion, Sananggak and Munhyanggak buildings were built, and lastly the third phase when the east, west dormitories were reconstructed in front of the lecture hall. The large scale construction of Simgok Seowon is related to the education based management of the academy by Doam Yi Jae, and the 17∼18th century remains confirmed from the archaeological excavations are evidence of this.
Remains for Imsimnu Pavilion, Sananggak, and Munhyanggak buildings have yet to be confirmed, and spaces to the south and east of the seowon are unidentified. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct investigations and research for the unexcavated spaces of the seowon, to conduct in-depth studies and for the effective adaptive re-use of the seowon.
There were lots of changes of the wooden structure in the middle of Joseon Dynasty. It was the time of replacement from Jusimpo (simple bracket system) to Ikgong (wing-like bracket system) and each bracket had shown mutual variation as well as itself. The aspects of change were discovered that the decorative elements of Ikgong and Dapo (multi-bracket system) had accepted from each other. It was clearly shown that not only the Ungung (carved cloud-shape) and Chotgaji (shape of the acuminate leaf) of Ikgong had affected to Dapo, but also Gaang (pseudo-pointing cantilever) of Dapo had affected to Ikgong. It was mostly found in the Buddhist architecture because there was the conservatization of ruling hierarchy as well as the active growth of Buddhist society.
Sangnyang-mun(上樑文) is not only a memorial address for the ceremony of putting up the ridge beam, namely the sangnyang-ceremony(上樑式) but also the executional record of building construction. This paper aims at researching on the oldest five sangnyang-muns written for the constructions of palaces and government offices in Goryeo Dynasty, especially viewed in the architectural history. The results of that are as follows:
First, it is supposed that sangnyang-mun originated in the ancient Chinese ceremonial songs for the celebration of building construction. Second, as compared against the former times, the sangnyang-muns in Goryeo Dynasty were written to the advanced establishing forms and literary patterns, so to speak, these were the more developed styles. Third, in the 12th century, sangnyang-mun was introduced from Chinese Song to Goryeo. To the late period of Joseon Dynasty, sangnyang-mun had been to write for the sangnyang-ceremony as necessary memorial address. Fourth, the writers of five sangnyang-muns in Goryeo Dynasty were the new civil ministers appointed by the soldier rulers. They wrote the contents of their sangnyang-muns, especially focused to the king’s achievements. And in the yugwi-song(六衛頌), they recited six poems in which were complicated the world view and aesthetics of the time.
A discourse on the Independence Hall of Korea, a representative cultural project of the 1980s, has been understood as a repetition of the traditional debate of the 1960s. It was considered as a petrified propaganda aimed at ensuring the fragile legitimacy of the military regime, and the architect as a sympathizer. Even if all these facts are true, it does not give any explanation for the architecture. Scrutinizing the building process and the change of discourse in the Independence Hall of Korea, this paper tries to explore a section of contemporary Korean architecture in the 1980s. The architect who designed the Independence Hall of Korea is Kim Kiwoong, however, it was Kim Won who took charge of overall scheme for it. Kim Won replaced the role of a technocrat in the 1960s, who deprived architects of his autonomy. Against this backdrop, Kim Kiwoong attempted to explain his own building via various concept like postmodernism, which gave him very proper context. But, later, he appropriated words like void and madang. These derived from some architectural historian’s researches in 1970s, and were to predict the architecture of the 1990s.
The purpose of this study is to inquire original design and character of dancheong in Yeongnamnu Pavilion which features unusual portraits of twisting dragons and four heavenly creatures. Its artistic value and originality can be found in the portraits of four heavenly creatures which are painted on the interior seonjayeon(fan shape rafter) and in the unique design of crossbeam meoricho(flower decorations on each side of pillars). Yeongnamnu’s crossbeam meoricho is janggu-meoricho type(meoricho with hourglass figure) with full-shape lotus and half-shape flower decorations. And it can be said that, dragon portrait painted on the border of lotus and flower decorations in green and yellow is a very unique style of dancheong, for the reason that it has scarcely been used before and ever since. The portrait of four heavenly creatures painted on each corner of seonjayeon is also found to be unique in design, for the reason that the design has rarely been used throughout history, with only two exceptions in mural tombs of Goguryeo and folding screen in Injeongjeon Hall of Changdeokgung Palace . With its unique and authentic feature along with its rarity in number, the portrait of four heavenly creatures painted on Yeongnamnu can be considered as quite symbolic and important.