The construction method of scaffolding structures is different from Mortise and Tenon and bucket arch structure of traditional large woodwork. It forms an independent construction system-fixing nodes with knots, a large number of diagonal braces are used to fix shelves and the structures mostly contain X-shape and triangular shape details. Simple ones include stalls, sheds, rain sheds, altars, lamp racks etc. But the scaffolding with larger scale and more complicated structure are modeled on archways, theatres and other buildings which are used in commercial and festival activities. At present, Macao, Hong Kong, Guangdong, Sichuan, Shanxi and other places in China have retained the custom of using scaffolding structures in important festival activities, but their uses, techniques and building types are slightly different from place to place. Due to building and demolishing at any time, the construction and service cycle is short. As a result, there are almost no physical objects left. We can only deduce the use and technical characteristics of ancient scaffolding skills through the colorful building styles that have been preserved with folk activities in various parts of China, the craftsmanship handed down from generation to generation by the scaffolding guild and artisans, and the description of cultural and historical materials and the mutual corroboration of visual materials.
The purpose of this research is to investigate Korean architects’ perception of the Modern Movement in architecture in the West during the Japanese colonial period, by analyzing two Korean publications in the 1930s: Park Dongjin’s ‘Present Architectural Tendency’ (Dong-A Ilbo, March 1931) and Hong Yunsick’s ‘Trend in the Thought of Moderne Baukunst’ (Chogwang, September 1937). As a result of the investigation, it is confirmed that the two men welcomely accepted the universal modernity, regarding the rational and functional - rather than subjective expressions of the individual - as the key to modern architecture. Although their perception of the Modern Movement in Western architecture was inevitably superficial due to the limited condition of the Japanese colonial period in Korea, there was an obvious advancement in the latter’s perception from the former’s, reflecting the progress in knowledge of it over the six and a half years between the two. Therefore, it is argued that their 1930s’ writings are meaningful as the first Korean publications that illustrate how Korean architectural circles perceived the contemporary architectural movement in the West.
Bongsu(Beacon Fire Station) is a facility that sends signals with fire and smoke and has been used in Korea since the Three Kingdoms period. This facility was installed to know the north and south crises. This trend continues until the Joseon Dynasty, and it has been somewhat completed in the 17th century. In previous studies, beacon fire was identified mainly from the border area to Hanyang. Based on this, it was classified into Gyeongbongsu, Yeonbyeonbongsu, and Naejibongsu. However, it is difficult to define the characteristics of beacon fire in coastal areas only with this classification. In the case of beacon fire in island areas, there was a tendency to value communication connection within the region rather than connection with the capital. As a case analysis for this, an academic review was conducted with the cases of Ganghwa Island and Jeju Island. As a result, it was confirmed that the role and character of the beacon vary depending on the defense system and the physical distance from the land, even if it has the topographical commonality of the same island.
Due to a mistranslation of Sanskrit to Chinese, East Asian Buddhist community misunderstands the original meaning of the fundamental word, ‘sachal(寺刹)’. Sanskrit chattra, a parasol on top of a venerated Indian stupa buried with Buddha’s sarira, became the symbol of majesty. The Indian stupa was transformed into a pagoda in China, and the highlighted parasol on the summit was transliterated into chaldara(刹多羅), an abbreviation for chal (刹), and finally designated the whole pagoda(塔). Sachal consists with lying low monastery and high-rise pagoda. Tapsa(塔寺), an archaic word of temple, is exactly the same as sachal, because chal means tap, pagoda. However, during the 7th century a Buddhist monk erroneously double-transliterated the Sanskrit ‘kshetra,’ meaning of land, into the same word as chal, even despite phonetic disaccord. Thereafter, sutra translators followed and copied the error for long centuries. It was the Japanese pioneer scholars that worsen the situation 100 years ago, to publish Sanskrit dictionaries with the errors insisting on phonetic transliteration, though pronunciation of ‘kshe-’ which is quite different from ‘cha-.’ Thereafter, upcoming scholars followed their fallacy without any verification. Fallacy of chal, meaning of land, dominates Buddhist community broadly, falling into conviction of collective fixed dogma in East Asia up to now. In the Buddhist community, it is the most important matter to recognize that the same language has become to refer completely different objects due to translation errors. As a research method, searching for corresponding Sanskrit words in translated sutras and dictionaries of Buddhism is predominant. Then, after analyzing the authenticity, the fallacy toward the truth will be corrected.
Korean architecture classifies Banja (the decorated flat of the ceiling visible from the inside) of Royal Palaces into two types: Woomul(water-well, 井) banja, which inserts rectangular wooden board into lattice frame, and paper banja, which applies paper to the flat ceiling. Such classification was established in the 19th century. Before that, Banja was classified according to what was inserted into the lattice frame, either wooden or paper board. At first, the banja that used paper board was widely installed regardless of the purpose or nobility of the building. However, since the 17th century, the use of paper board banja became mostly restricted to Ondol (Korean floor heating system) rooms which are characterized by private usage and the importance of heating, and it was considered inferior to wooden board banja in terms of rank or grace. The contemporary paper banja was mainly installed in low-rank ondol rooms until the late 19th century to early 20th century, when roll-type wallpaper was introduced from the West and the paper banja came to decorate the King’s and Queen’s bedrooms. The traditional paper board banja benefits heat reservation, reduces the weight of the ceiling, and allows the adjustment of the lattice frame size. Furthermore, it can feature unique artistry if covered with blue, white, or red Neung-hwa-ji (traditional flower pattered paper).
Recently, local studies looking at the 'local(region) as a whole' are gradually increasing. The study of local architectural history is important in that it provides specific information that encompasses the local and the entire and clues to three-dimensionalize the time and space in the local. To infer the 'presentness' of each era, reliable data in various fields are needed. Recently, as many databases (DB) and archives, from the 'National Archives of Korea' to other local archives, have been established and publicized, research resources in the local are growing rapidly in quantity and quality. Nevertheless, it is difficult to comprehensively check the data necessary to study the local architectural history(local architectural history research resources). Against this background, this study confirmed the trend of changes in the archive construction environment and the status and problems of local architectural history research resources in places that currently disclose local history research resources among generalized web-archives. Next, the relationship between the actual research on local architectural history was confirmed through the analysis of existing studies and the data used for Jeju. As a result, local studies, local archives, and local architectural history research agree with recent changes in local research trends, and the degree of archival construction has reached the same level as the available research resources except core data in local architectural history research. However, there is a problem that the density of information that can be used is low because the local architectural history research resources that can be obtained are fragmented because there are no archives and construction entities specialized in local architecture. As each archive has entered the stabilization and upgrading stage, the construction of new archives needs to be reconsidered, but it is time to find a detailed way to link related information quickly and accurately, such as private records, to reduce the gap in information needed in terms of research on local architecture and architecture history.