This study is to find out the design concept of asymmetrical building with 4 purlins mainly in Sungkyunkwan(Confucian Shrines), Changgyeonggung palace and Changdeokgung palace The results are as follows: First, asymmetrical building with 4 purlins has the same height pillars, which was useful to control the side lenght and put a higher pillar without limit. Second, the side length of the asymmetrical building with 4 purlins is between 12 to 14 Ja[尺]. It's relatively longer than the minimum length(12 Ja) of 5 purlins architecture seen in later Joseon dynasty. Third, asymmetrical building with 4 purlins was not an anomalous structure when compared to 3 purlins and 5 purlins. It was actually a traditional style, unlike the current architectural recognition nowadays, which mainly focused on the balanced roof structure. These examples show that the architectures in Early Joseon dynasty were planned and constructed first according to the plane division that fit in a specific use or space.
This study explores the application aspect of The detailed rules of Census (1896) through the change of Kan numbers in Gyeonpyeong-bang. Although Gyeonpyeong-bang was a high-priority area because of its location, it was difficult to trace the operation of the urban situation due to lack of data. This study is focusing on restoring space and society in the Gyeonpyeong-bang using the information on the type of houses and the number of Kan listed in the family register of Hanseong-bu. The detailed rules of Census sets out provisions for the family registry and the rules of making Tong. Especially when it comes to the rules of making Tong, this rule deals with the code of making ten Hos into one Tong. This study was conducted by dividing the status of the Tong into three types: uncompleted Tong, exceeded Tong without vacant Ho number, and exceeded Tong with the vacant Ho number. Since these three types of Tong are in the process of change towards the complete Tong with 10 Hos, they were thought to be able to demonstrate the specific application of the rules. This study will be meaningful as a case study that expands the point of existing research on the Tong making rules, which was not focused relatively on restoring urban conditions at that time, by looking at the changes in exceptions that deviated from the Sipgajaktong rule.
The harsh economic conditions of Buddhist temples in late Joseon dynasty, and the prevalence of the Buddhānusmrti(念佛) practice, which is a practice of reciting Amita Buddha(阿彌陀佛), led Buddhist temples to organize the Buddhānusmrti association(念佛契) in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. For the practices and the activities of organization, an architectural facility was required; thereby, many temples had a Yeombul-dang(念佛堂). However, only a few of the Yeombul-dang have survived and are known today. This research investigates the ways temples tried to acquire Yeombul-dang buildings during the period and their architecture characteristics by reviewing historical records and documentary works of literature. In this research, Yeombul-dang is found to have various types of building names and building forms. Different hall names such as Amitābha Hall(佛殿), Yosa(寮舍) and Daebang(大房) were used as Yeonbul-dang. The commonalities and differences in terms of building forms, spatial elements composition and layouts were found depending on how they were acquired. The Yeombul-dang were most commonly built as multi-complex buildings consisting of worshiping rooms and residential areas. Most of Yeombul-dang were located in the central areas of the temple site. On this basis, this research suggests the possibility that many Yeombul-dang is still being used under different names and for different purposes.
The grade of East Asian architecture is generally classified by the size, the shape of the roof, and the type of bracket set. The craftsmanship of columns, beam, purlin, stylobate, column base stone and paintwork is also a contributing factor for such classifications. These classifications can be found not only in historical documents such as Oksajo(屋舍條) of Samguksagi(三國史記) but also in house details regulations of residential architecture(家舍規制) of Joseon Dynasty. However, there are differences in detailed designs among the same grade of architecture regardless of the classification. In this research, the Palace, the Royal Residence(宮家), and the Jaesil(齋室) are considered as the Palatial Buildings and Royal Residences. And the advanced architectural ㅇ details which appear only in the Royal Architectures are defined as the ‘The Architectural Crafts as a Code of Manners’. The Architectural Crafts as a Code of Manners is detailed design, which can be seen as fabrication of materials and supplementary factors. The Architectural Crafts as a Code of Manners used in the Palatial Buildings and Royal Residences reveal the types and their historical changes. This research will present a basis for the repair and restoration of cultural heritages to be carried out in the future, and also prevent them from further damages, thus help to preserve the cultural heritages.
Ganggyeong, a city which is located at riverside of Geum River, played a role to connect the inland cities and the coastal cities through the Geum river waterway. In Chosun dynasty, Ganggyeong was one of the three major markets in Korea, and at the same time, it was one of the two river docks in Korea. However, after the railway was installed in Korea, railroad was more important than waterway in transporting logistics and in 1911 Honam railroad and Ganggyeong railway station was installed. Thus it was necessary to reorganize urban structure of Ganggyeong city from the traditional river-dock city to modern railroad city. In addition, urban infrastructure to prevent flood damage was needed because Ganggyeong suffered from floods and water shortages every year. Therefore, between 1910s and 1930s large-scale social infrastructures including road, water and sewage system, river bank, floodgate was constructed not only to revitalize the declining city but also to prevent flood damage and water shortages that hinder urban development. The installation of urban infrastructure has enabled the urban expansion and development of Ganggyeong city, and it is still served as a basic urban structure.
The purpose of this study is to identify the context of enactment and the application to the design of <Joseon Government-General Architectural Standard> in 1916. The characteristics of the composition are as follows; First, One-third are general rules of common application, Second, regulations related to cold resistance are set up separately, last, each of the 21 articles was equally divided for schools, hospitals and prisons. The standard reflect the times of the mid-1910s. The Trend of using of the Western Building System in the 1910s, The need for building construction against cold weather, and Actual conditions of renovation, extension and new plans by facility. Furthermore, the fact that various regulations concerning standard design were enacted and used in various Japanese institutions around the 1910s may have influenced the establishment of the standard. Meanwhile, after checking the status of the reflection of the standard on the planning drawings of the government facilities around 1916, it was also found that the plan was carried out in compliance with the provisions of the standard, and that the items already applied before the enactment had been organized into architectural standards.
The Fisher House, the first Korean Legation in the USA was located at 1513 O Street in Washington, D.C. This house was a three-story brick building with a height of 12.2m(8.84m up to the eaves) and a mansard roof. Facing the street, it is 7.32m (24 feet) wide and 23.6m(77.4 feet) depth. There is a long hallway after the entrance and a parlor with a grand fireplace next to it. This long hallway leads to a central hallway with another fireplace and a central staircase connecting the 2nd and 3rd floors. After the stairs a dining room is with a fireplace in the middle, which then leads to a pantry for dishes and the kitchen. It can also be argued that The Fisher House was the first Western-style residence for Koreans who were officially dispatched from the government. On the other hand, when living in The Fisher House, Park Jung-yang, who was sent on the three premises of the Yeonjak, directly experienced how the United States sought independence from the U.K. through the Declaration of Independence, Mount Vernon, the Washington monument, the Arlington National Cemetery, and battlefields. Even though he was summoned back to Korea by China in less than a year, Park Jung-yang actively supported the independence movement when he became acting prime minister in 1896. In this regard, The Fisher House arguably is the birthplace of Korea’s independence movement.