The formation of modern architecture during the Weimar Republic in Germany is seen through the works by Bruno Taut, one of the leading architects during that period. Through the extensive literature readings on Bruno Taut and critical analysis of Bruno Taut’s ideologies, his works and the circumstances that he was in, the contention of this paper is that the root of modern architecture has less to do with functionalism and new technologies, but more to do with need to express new ideologies and expressions of their view of a new society. Although the socialistic idea did not account for sole reason for influencing their architecture, it did play a considerable part in deciding what architectural expressions are preferred. For this discourse this paper limits Bruno Taut's years from 1913 to 1932 prior to his exile from Germany; 1913 to 1923 being the years that constitute theoretical activities and 1923 to 1932 being the golden years for social housing when he participated on many public housing projects. It was during this period that his architecture put importance of practicality, and utilitarian; however the transition was not an abrupt departure from his expressionistic architecture but an inclusive act on his part.
This study is related to excavation from ruins the memorial structure within the Jeongreung royal tomb. There are experimental assertion on the basis of results of the excavation, historical records. The location of the memorial structure is identified in picture of Sunwonbogam(선원보감), records of Chunkwantongho(春官通考). The memorial structure have 6 rooms where lay in 250 steps(步) from the south of Hongjeonmun gate, lotus pond lay in southeast of the structure recorded on Chunkwantongho that's guide book to manners. It's matched in the location as result of excavation. The building site consists of main house(윗채), outhouse(아래채) that's stationed in stepped. It seems that main house as the memorial structure have 6 rooms. It's used as outhouse for facilities attached to the main. It's characterized the memorial structure within the Jeongreung royal tomb that's stationed main house, outhouse in stepped it using natural ground. It's estimated that it's tried to conservation for building site, fence etc. in next several time. With regard to constructing time of the structure, traces involved to first construction is simple: 2 chimneys in flower bed, fence, a part of stone elevation, drains by using rectangular stone. It shows that the building site had been reconstructed or renovated during Gho-jong King 37s year of the Choson dynasty(A.D.1900). It seems that the memorial structure during approximately 300 years in existence from Hyeon-jong King 10s year of the Choson dynasty(A.D.1669) to the late 1960s.
This study identifies the current status of hanok design process and required design information through individual survey and interview with hanok architects and builders to suggest a proposal. Current design system turns out to be a common design process not reflecting hanok's unique mechanism of production. The proposal consists of the alternative design process, 'Initial survey / Site and structural planning / Spatial layout and form / Openings, interior and exterior elements design / Detail design', containing the specialty of hanok's mechanism, and the lists of design information required in its each stage. The proposed design process also emphasizes the significance of consultation in a way of designing coordination, and classifies the specific contents for each consultation moments. The study is expected to contribute for architects including the group who are not specialized in hanok to improve the architectural quality by following the systematic design process. Also the design system provides a framework to organize the vast range of design information being recently developed in the technique-oriented area.
Compared to Early Chosun Dynasty, the spatial structure of most local Eupseongs of Korea had a standardized change with the expansion and spread of the Rye-hak(禮學:a study of confucius Rite). Meanwhile in the process of rebuilding Eupseongs there was a tendency of relocation of the local government offices(官衙) and its attached facilities in terms of functions and use. Although it was PyeongSanseong Miryang Eupseong had an unreasonable spatial structure locating Gaeksa(客舍; accommodation house for visitors) in the middle of the local government office complex, and Dongheon(東軒;main office building) in the east of it before the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. However with the reorganization of spatial Structure of local Eupseongs after the Japanese invasion Gaeksa was moved to the foot of Adongsan where commanded a fine view of river. Dongheon was moved to the center of Eupseong for the effective management of its auxiliary organizations. It was because road system and administrative efficiency had a serious effect on deciding the location of the local government office and its attached facilities. After the Japanese invasion Hyangchoeng(鄕廳), having been out of Eupseong, also was moved to the independent location within Eupseong separate from Dongheon and Gaeksa. It seemed to take into account the autonomy of Hyangchoeng. Dongheon, Gaeksa, and Hyangchoeng which are the crucial facilities of Milyang Eupseong were arranged at each angular point of big triangle. In order to enhance the administative efficiency, the attached administrative facilities were arranged surrounding Dongheon and Hyangchoeng. The spatial structure of Milyang Eupseong in the late Choseon dynasty was of great difference from that of uniformly organized system of early Choseon Period. It was because the development of administrative function, the pursuit of efficiency, and commercial progress had a great impact on the change of urban space.