This study investigates H-shaped houses in 1930s and examines the characters and meanings of Kim, Jong-Ryang`s H-shaped houses as a new trial to urban Hanok of those days. He, who was concerned about the housing problem of Seoul, made an attempt to make various types of dwellings. Among them, this study focuses on Japanese-Korean Style H-shaped houses in Samcheong-dong. As the alternative housing type against other urban Hanok of Seoul in 1930s, the H-shaped houses of Kim, Jong-Ryang had characters as follows : 1) H-shaped house has two special characters. First, the whole space of a single house can be divided into a left region and a right region. Second, it can be divided to a front region and a rear region. In his H-shaped houses, the left/right division was expressed as folding of space-layers in parallel with urban streets. The front/rear division was used as classification of main-living space and sub-living space. 2) KJR`s H-shaped Japanese-Korean Style houses were proved to be designed as urban housing against the extreme housing shortage of Seoul in 1930s. 3) His houses however were not accepted broadly as a urban house type because the construction cost of those was higher than an average and the element of Japanese style house was not adapted to Korea. Kim, Jong-Ryang`s trial is valuable because it was the rare case of realization of many discourses as defects of existing house type. With more rigorous investigations on KJR`s experiment in modern house type, we could understand the housing condition of Seoul in 1930s and modern urban houses more than before.
The examples of developing a building site after the Woongjin period are mainly found in temple sites, tile-roofed building sites of unidentified features, and palace remains including the pavilion site with the river in the front(임류각지) inside the Castle of Gongsan, Gongjoo,. In case of the Hanseong period, a glimpse of the features has been gained in Poongnab mud castle and Mongchon mud castle, but the excavated relics are not yet enough to make some data out of them. After the Woongjin period of Baejae, the earth-ramming development method was used mostly to construct a building site, which is divided into horizontal and slant raising of the ground level. Both are used simultaneously, but there are the significant differences in the way of raising the ground level between them. Particularly, in case of the Wanggoong-ri relics in Iksan, the ground level was raised in a narrow line slantly, which is differentiated from other slant raising of the ground level, and its time of construction also is after that of others. In addition, the board-building development method used for narrow space is usually found in the remains since the seventh century. However, there are not enough the relics of Baekjae to reveal the whole aspect of building site development. It should be studied later through the subsequent excavation and research.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the symbolic meaning of pattern designs attached on the main building of Chungcheongnam-do Provincial Government (CPG). While most of researches mainly focused on the value and evaulation of the CPG building in terms of architectural history, relatively little insight has been gained on the symbolic meaning and nature of the pattern designs. What kind of connections are related between the emblem of Governor-General of Chosun(Korea) and those of CPG? What symbolic meanings are engraved on the pattern designs? The researcher then took up the task of elucidating symbolic meanings of patterns and their relation to the building. The existing pattern on the outer wall of the CPG building consists of the symbol of sun(太陽輪), mums(菊花輪), and angle of stairs(雁木角). According to the Japanese studies of emblems, these visual elements symbolize ‘the sun of Japan’((日の丸) or ‘the emperor’, ‘the royal family’, and ‘rays of the sun’. Based on these preliminary findings, the researcher considered the following in-depth connections: (1) relations with the emblem of Governor-General of Chosun, (2) relations with the emblems of local autonomous entity, Kyoungsung in Chosun. (3) relations with the emblem designs of the local provinces in Japan etc. In conclusion, patterns of the main building were not just an architectural decoration, but they had significant meanings utilizing design elements and methods adopted by local autonomous entities in Japan. The patterns found at the ceilling and floor of hall in the CPG building were associated with the emblem of Governor-General of Chosun. Therefore, all the patterns of the CPG building are powerful symbols that have meanings for the colonial rule by using the shape and method of city identities that Japanese local provinces had enacted. That is, it came out into the open that they were designed for special meanings that Korean and Japanese are united as a single body(內鮮一體) for a subject of the Emperor of Japan(皇國臣民).
The purpose of this study is to investigate the history, space structures, blueprint, and techniques of the construction of Nam-hea city walls. Nam-hea city walls were relocated in 1439 from Whagumhun-Sansung(火金峴山城) to the present site, nearby Nam-hea Um.(南海邑) The city walls were rebuilt after they were demolished during Japanese invasion on Korea in 1592 and their reconstruction was also done in 1757. At present, the city walls only partially remained due to the urbanization of the areas around them. A plane form of the City wall is a square, and the circumference is approximately 1.3km. According to the literature, the circumference of the castle walls is 2,876尺, the height is 13尺, and the width is 13尺 4寸. Hang-Kyo(鄕校). SaGikDan(社稷壇), YoeDan(厲壇), SunSo(船所) which is a harbor, as well as government and public offices such as Kaek-Sa(客舍) and Dong-Hun(東軒) existed inside the castle walls. Inside the castle walls were one well, five springs, one ditch, and one pond, and in the castle walls, four castle gates, three curved castle walls, and 590 battlements existed. The main government offices inside castle walls were composed of Kaek-Sa, Dong-Hun, and Hang-Chung(鄕廳) their arrangements were as follows. Kaek-Sa was situated toward North. Dong-Hun was situated in the center of the west castle walls. The main roads were constructed to connect the North and South castle gate, and subsidiary roads were constructed to connect the East and West castle gate. The measurement used in the blueprint for castle wall was Pobaek-scale(布帛尺:1尺=46.66cm), and one side of it was 700尺. South and North gate were constructed in the center of South and North castle wall, and curved castle walls was situated there. One bastion was in the west of curved castle walls and two bastions were in the east of curved castle walls. The east gate was located in the five eighths of in the east castle wall. Two bastions were situated in the north, one bastion in the south, and four bastions in the west castle wall. The castle walls were constructed in the following order: construction of castle field, construction of castle foundation, construction of castle wall, and cover the castle foundation. The techniques used in the construction of the castle walls include timber pile(friction pile), replacement method by excavation.
The study on Buddhism architecture in early Joseon dynasty was inactive. The period of King Sejo is important for studying the trend of Buddhism architecture in early Joseon, that was transmitted from the end of Goryeo dynasty, but it was difficult to know its exact situation due to lack of related records. The records were all written by Kim Su-ohn, which are Wongaksabi' 'Sangwonsajungchanggi' 'Bongseonsagi 'Geonginsajungchanggi'. The main hall was mainly second floor and there were necessarily annexed buildings at the right and left of the main hall. So the plane figure of □□□ was shown. It was a main stream for monk's living hall and meditation hall to be located at the right and left of yard in front of main hall. This layout may be referred to search for the origin of the layout in courtyard based structure(中庭形) in the late Joseon dynasty. Most of temples had 3 gates. Some part of horizontal corridor was used as 2 gates and the outer gate, far from main hall, was without corridor. The gate leading to front yard of main hall was called front gate, the next was middle gate and the outer gate was Oisamun(外沙門 )or Samun(沙門). In most of the temples, people could enter into the front yard through pavilion which had the function of bell tower. The pavilions were located between front gate and first corridor. It is thought that this layout of the place for making bean curd outside the temple area will contribute to different studies on temples making bean curd in the future. The records about temple's foundation studied above are a little different between temples, but have more similarities. These common denominators represent the architecture tendency of Buddhist temples in the related period. It is thought that such a tendency was also shown on architecture of other temples during the reign of King Sejo as well as Buddhist temples.