This study was aimed at analyzing the location and topology of the 'Gungmyo(宮廟)' and in Hanyang Doseong(漢 陽都城) during 18th and 19th century. Based on the changes of royal processions(行幸) which had been done between the Gungmyo and the Palace, the Gungmyo can be a barometer of cognition where the city center was. Hanyang Doseong was the the capital of Joseon(朝鮮) which had established by king Taejo(太祖). The city had been organized with Gyeongbok-gung(景福宮) as the center. However, after the Imjin War(1592), Gyeongbok-gung was destroyed and urban space was reorganized with Changduk-gung(昌德宮) which reconstructed first. As most kings in late Joseon dynasty had mainly stayed in Changduk-gung, lots of Gungmyos where a memorial service for king’s relatives had been held were established in and around the palace and the frequency of visiting the Gungmyo varied by political purpose. Therefore, the location of the Gungmyo and the rounte of parade were important to impress on the center of urban space. In 18th century, lots of King’s procession had been done with Changduk-gung as departure point. The king used to start from Donwha-mun(敦化門), and the routes included main street around Changduk-gung. It shows that the urban center focused on the east of the city. On the other hand, when the king lived in Kyeonghee-gung(慶熙宮), a secondary palace in late Joseon dynasty, the parade started from Hungwha-mun(興化門) and the urban center was expended to the west. Since Gyeongbok-gung had reconstructed in 1865, recognition scheme of urban space had changed from Changduk-gung to Gyeongbok-gung as the center. When the Gungmyo relocated western side of Gyeongbok-gung, spatial proximity of the palace and relation with facilities around downtown fed into changing the route of king's parade.
This paper focuses on the spatial analysis of traditional houses in Huizhou during the Ming and Qing period in China. It first reviews the spatial characteristics of the houses in Huizhou. Typical configurations, spatial elements and spatial compositions of the houses are briefly examined. It then discusses how those spatial characteristics are applied to the houses. To do so, the review of existing research and literature on the houses was conducted. For a detailed analysis of the houses, a field survey was performed to collect research materials of the houses and to assess the application of the characteristics in the houses. At times, the plans of the houses were redrawn for a further analysis of the spatial compositions of the houses. Attempts have been made to understand the underlying principles of their spatial organization. For example, Jin (2010) examined the spatial organization of unit plans. Boyd (1989), Berliner (2003) and Dan (2005) similarly categorized the organizational typology of its varying designs. Son(1995) further interpreted the spatial relations of the variety of houses in a comprehensive manner. Nevertheless, their analytic methodology falls short of a complete explanation of the spatial expansion and transformation in the houses. Therefore, this paper examines the basic principles behind the spatial expansion and transformation of a variety of traditional houses in Huizhou. In doing so, it strives to make logical sense of design variations in the houses and reveal the theory behind them.
This paper aimed at investigating into the origin and meaning of the Japanese architect Terunobu Fujimori's 'piercing column', and drew a conclusion as follows. First, the piercing column that made its first appearance in his architect debut work Jinchokan Moriya Historical Museum (1991) was conceived unexpectedly from pencil lines on a sketch that went through over the building's roof. And the tree-like natural treatment of the column's surface was influenced by Takamasa Yoshizaka's description of a Mongolian mud-house. Second, most of piercing columns in his later works have nothing to do with a structural role as in Jinchokan, but were designed for a visual effect and as a symbolic gesture. Again, they allude to a tree in nature through a roughly peeling treatment of the surface. Third, considering his ideas in History of Humankind and Architecture (2005), his column could be related to a universal origin of architecture and a symbol of the sun-god faith, and in particular to independent columns of Japanese Shito shrines, such as 'Onbashira' in Suwa and 'Iwanebashira' in Izumo. That is to say, the Fujimori column is a medium that implies the animistic nature-faith of Japan. Nevertheless, Fujimori's naturalism hints at a disquieting quality through an intentional artificiality and a provocative conflict between structure and finish of a building, which might be one aspect of the modern condition, 'uncanny'.
『Ohju Yeonmun Jangjeon Sango』 written by Lee, Gyu-gyeng is one of the most important encyclopedias in the period of Chosun-Dynasty. There are two chapters related to architecture in this book, one is 「ancestral rite·governance·human」chapter, and the other is 「architecture·human」chapter. Both of them are hard to understand because they are written in ancient Chinese and consist of various quotations in ambiguous way. This paper as a partial study is deal with the former. It makes difference between writter's original texts and quotations through textual research, and translates to modern Korean, and analyze information about ancient architecture in texts. The texts can divide to three sections. The first introduces three Chinese architectural theory books as 『Gogonggi(考工記)』, 『Yeongjo Beopsik(營造法式)』 and 『Mokgyeng(木經)』, and mentions about the prototype of the royal ancestral ritual building in 『Gogonggi Toju(考工記圖注)』. The second quotes 『Seoyeong(書影)』 to introduce 『Yeongjo Beopsik』. The third quotes 『PaePyeon(稗編)』 to introduce 『Yeongjo Beopsik』 and 『Mokgyeng』, and mentions about the counting unit of columns of the royal ancestral ritual building. Although the purpose for these quotations is not directly mentioned, but we can find it is intended to explain the architectural prototype and lay-out of the royal ancestral ritual building.
The purpose of this study is to present improvement for classification system of current neighborhood living facility to correspond rapid social change and various industries after understanding its status and problem. In current Building Standard Law, various kinds of buildings are classified for their structure, purpose of use, and building types. The Neighborhood Living Facility is divided into First Neighborhood Living Facility and Second Neighborhood Living Facility with applying area standards, according to facilities of convenience degree for neighborhood inhabitants. This classification, however, has problem in an arbitrary decision and applying of buildings without any definition or standards to adopt. And, there are some mixed neighborhood public functional facilities and amusement business affecting public morals among the Neighborhood Living Facility, so hazard environmental problems are also existed. According to the improved program, the study presents a prompt adoption of new facilities according to various industry increase, with minimum public discontent over adopted area standards. This study suggests making a clear scope through reclassification of Neighborhood Living Facility within the scope of the law on current Neighborhood Living Facility and an improvement plan of introducing necessary definitions on purpose of facility.
Modern railway construction by Japanese had a great influence on the urbanization, transformation of urban structure and landscape during the Japanese imperialism and compressive increasing period in Iri(Iksan). This paper aims to find out the effect of railway on the modern urban structure and urban landscape in Iri(Iksan). Railways in Iri, Honam railway, Kunsan railway, Jeonla railway have been constructed progressively during 1911 and 1915 with Iri and old Iri(east-Iri) station. From the analysis of land registration maps and street plans, old photographies and historical records, some significant features underling railway construction can be followed in view of modern urbanization process in Iri. Firstly railways cut off the possibility of developing urban structure based on traditional spatial structure of Iksan. Secondly railways made dual spatial structure in Iri. Japanese and Korean life zone were divided into separate district around urbanization area and market place. Thirdly traditional space cognition system based on four cardinal directions were changed to front and rear space of railway station. Fourthly railways and stations caused neo-baroque spatial order and imperialistic urban landscape of Iri with axis, vista and gridiron plan. Fifthly break points and fringe belts garbling modern urbanization process are created. Sixthly modern cultural and consumptive urban spaces were taken their seats in relation with daily urban life.
The typical form of Indian Stupa, which is going to understood the gradual development and various forms at the Kushan-era Stupa. Buddhist art and architecture of the Kushan-era was influenced Gandharan Hellenistic culture of the foreign. And indigenous Indian cultures of mature was visually big change. The Kushan-era Stupa has been ten feature. First, a circular podium at typical form of the initial Stupa was constantly changed. Second, is the Stupa of the overlaps and increase podium. Third, the Stupa has been square podium. Forth, is down scale of Anda(Bokbal). Fifth, increases the Stupa and Railing smaller, and Change the position of the Torana(gateway). Sixth, changing the target of the faith, thereby a statue of Buddha has been added in the Stupa. Seventh, around the main Stupa and podium are made in a tabernacle. Eighth, the developed spokes structure was added to on the podium inside. Ninth, crosswise plan appears unlike general Stupa. This type has relevance with Tower Stupa. Tenth, the Votive Stupa was added to the temples and Apse type chaitya has been developed.