Owing to the energitic studies of the leading shcolars, some paradigmatic theories on the history of Korean dwellings have been suggested. They constructed periodization of their own and defined characteristics of each period with very limited historical materials. However the new historical materials have been discovered in the neighboring academic fields, which require to review the existing theories. This study aims at restructuring periodization in the history of Korean dwellings during the age of The prehistory and The ancient Kingdomes. Through the study, the existing theories on the same period are revived and evaluated based on the new materials. I suggest a new theory on the periodization and the characteristics of each period: a. the paleolithic period(6,000,000 B.P.-10,000 B.P.) : natural shelter, the emergence of man-made dwellings b. the neolithic period(10,000 B.P.-1,000 B.C.) : construction of pit house c. the bronze period(1,000 B.C.- 300 B.C.) : construction of semi-pit house d. the early metalic period(300 B.C. - 300 AD.) : construction of house on the ground level development of the Ondol system e. the ancient kingdomes period(300 AD - 700 AD): classification of housing type
Architectural researches on the traditional houses of Korea have been studied mainly based on the data collected in the field survey. From explosively incresed real mesurements and drawings in the field, plenty of data have been collected. Those have been the basic data for verifing and developing the theories on the traditional house. But after Korean war the researchers in South-Korea were not able to approach to the field in North Korea, so the new data of North Korea were not added any more. The poverty of real data have caused regional unbalance in the researches. This paper aims at collecting new data of traditional house in North Korea. But still being prohibited for the researchers of South Korea to approach to the field, I had to depend on the memories and experiences of the immigrants from North Korea who are now living in Kyon-Nam and Pusan Province. Through the questionnaire and drawings, they described vivid memory of their old houses. I was able to collect the data of 71 cases, which are significant and valuable as much as those of the real field are. The data include the address and site condition, family structure, economic condition, construction period of each house, The drawings by themselves show the building forms and plans, the plans of each building, and the included spaces. Although the quantity of those data is not enough for statistical analysis, it shows general tendency for analizing regional charateristics, the differnces among economical classes, and the periodical change. It opens the way for verfying the existing theory. Analizing the data, I have some conclusions as followings: a. Most of researchers have classified the dominant housing type of Hamkyong-Do as 'the double fold' type. In this study, all cases of Hamkyongbuk-do also show 'the double fold plan with Chongju-kan'. But in Hamkyongnam-do some cases show 'the double fold plan without Chongju-kan, or projecting the stable into the yard, which seem to be different type from 'the double fold plan with Chongju-kan' b. Existing theories classified the dominant housing type of Pyongahn-do as 'two buildings with pararell arrangement'. This classification is verified with the plentiful cases in this study. Futhermore, I found new tendency, that is, getting higher econnomic condition, they construct annex buildings between the main buildings. Finally their houses show 'scattered ㅁ shape'. The houses included in this two types has narrow and closed inner yard, which is different from the houses of the same shape in the south region of Korea. c. Existing theories classified the dominant housing type of Hwanghae-do as 'ㅁ sape with Daechong' type. I found many cases of 'ㅁ shape', but only two cases show 'Daechong'. 'The doble fold' type was also founded. Unfortunately very few cases were sent from Hwanghae-do, it is not enough for finding general tendency.
From the early 1980's, when Chinese government decided to take an Open-Policy. Chinese society faced a new turning point to be changed from traditional-society to modern-society. As a result her outstanding phenomena of civilization is to be seen in many points, like the oid styled traditional street is rapidly replaced by the modernized high-rise buildings. Like the other cities in China, Beijing(北京) also is on the step of modernization, and it's changing speed is faster time by time. In this paper, I'll discuss about Beijing's policy of reservation of Old castles(古城), some problems what they have though the procedure of China's Movement of Old Castle Reservation(古城保護運動). And through this case study, I'd like to focus on the way how we solve some problems what we have now concerning to the reservation and development of traditional cities.
This study is on the early historical background and the process of development of modern architecture in Thai, during the period from 1782(King Rama 1) to 1934(King Rama 7). Thai started tn form a connection with western nations from the late 18C, founded the Bangkok Dynasty. Since then, Thai was increasingly influenced by western civilization and this trend included an increasing influence of western architecture. In this paper, the centeral objective is to observe the architectural change during the period from King Rama 1(1782-1809) to King Rama 7(1925-1934). This can be divided into three period. During the first period, from King Rama 1 to King Rama 3(1824-1851), Thai architecture showed a tendency to follow the preceding traditional example and to imitate Chinese architecture. The second period is from King Rama 4(1851-1868) to King Rama 5(1868-1910). During this period, Thai architectural design was increasingly influenced by western concepts, specially European Neo-classicism Style. During the third period, from King Rama 6(1910-1925) to King Rama 7(1925-1934), Thu had been enjoying extensive commerce with western nations. The great developments in the field of architecture during this reign were apparent in the construction of public utilities and facilities. These buildings were designed by western architects. At this time, modern architectural concept of western was introduced.
Computerized visual database construction of architectural precedents has just begun in some research institutes in the world. In Korea the first visual database has shown its testl version by S architectural design firm in september 1996. In this article the author discusses the historical contexts and the recent computerization cases, the traits, the uses and the limits of architectural visual database system of precedents. The forms and contents of data fields in two cases are compared with a focus on the description of architectural traits of each data entry. Compared to the KIA format, the S database has better performance for architectural design reference because it collects more pictures and drawings and larger texts for the field of architectural chracteristics. But this latter also is constrained by its capacity of memory and so lacks the reciprocity of the DOORS in the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University. A visual database system which has more flexible allocation of memory and respondent with the users is yet to be prepared. But this system also should be maintained by some experts in architectural history, theory and criticism, because their knowledge is essential for selection of precedents and revision of the data description. A full-fledged electronic visual database in architecture will not only save much effort for the architect, but also will change the architects' design behavior. Nevertheless this does not mean the automatic promotion of architects' creativity.