This research examines symbolic meanings of architectural style of Japanese ruling era of Korea through analysis of Expo buildings. Expo buidings of Joseon Product Evaluation Expo(1915), Joseon Expo(1929), and Joseon Grand Expo(1940) are chosen as subjects of this research. Expos held in Korea since 1945 were creatures of colonial reign and their objectives are advertising the advancement of Japan. New and latest architectural styles of Western countries were used as a symbol of advancement in non-western countries. Renaissance style and Secession style in Joseon Product Evaluation Expo and Modernism style in Joseon Expo were introduced as architectural styles that symbolize advancement. On the contrary, the traditional architectural style of Joseon Dynasty was distorted as symbol of backwardness. Latest Western Architectural Styles were used elaborately and Intentionally to symbolize advancement and industrialization by Japanese ruling power and companies. Specially, Modernism style operating as 'symbol of advancement' is characteristic of non-western society in attempt to proceed Modernization through Westernization. Also, it can be suggested that architectures in Modernism style are used in ways to symbolize the advancement of the colonial reign authorities within the colonial society.
Many contemporary architectural avant gardes tend to use painting as a medium to create architecture which goes beyond the rationalized spatial conception of modem architecture represented by perspectivism. They produce non perspective drawings to represent spatial Ideas, and expand it through poetic imagination to create an unexpected architectural form and space. This paper attempts to analyze the historical origin and background of dominance of drawing in the production of architecture. It was with the invention of perspective that architectural representation became important tool for architectural production. Thereafter, drawing was considered prior to actual building and architecture was considered a three dimensional realization of two dimensional drawing. Modernist avant gardes such as Cubism shattered the rationalized pictorial space of perspective and found a new pictorial space. They tried to extend it to three dimensional space through parallel projection largely based on the Hildebrand's theory of pure visibility. However, due to the ambiguity of the position of the viewing subject, their attempts could not succeed in creating a new architecture. The new architectural avant garde of the 70's rediscovered the early 20th century avant gardes in their attempt to create a new architecture which can register the fragmented spatial condition of contemporary society, and used painting as a medium to create architecture. Their difference from the early avant gardes was that they used poetic imagination rather than parallel projection in the process of projecting three dimensional space and form from the painting. However, their architecture cannot escape the scopic field of perspectivism in that they rely on the picture plane and the distance between object and viewing subject. Therefore, I conclude that in order to create architecture which goes beyond the rationalized space of modern architecture, it is necessary to resort to other tradition of modern architecture than visual one.
The Villa Mairea (1937-39) designed by Alvar Aalto (1898-1976) has been studied by many researchers from various viewpoints. However, few studies have devoted their attention to the major issue raised by Aalto at the Yale University lecture and "Mairea" article in arkitekten in 1939. The issue is to fuse art with life in the living room with mobile partition walls that can function both as art exhibition walls and as art storage cabinets at the same time. Through this device, he maintained, the client can change displayed pictures easily according to the situation and so "painting and everyday life can evolve in a more direct manner." This paper argues that Aalto's concept originated from Japanese 'tokonoma' in Tetsuro Yoshida's Das japanische Wohnhaus (1935), which he referred to during the project. Differently from other Japanese features in the house, this tokonoma idea is more than formal, but more decisive than passing in driving the plan. And, whether coincidently or not, his idea exactly corresponds to Japanese aesthetes' and critics' own interpretation of the tononoma as the symbolic centre of Japanese people's everyday life. More importantly, however, this art display concept discloses secret strata of modern architecture during the time when the petrified rationalism was still at its power Even through the tokonoma motif alone, we see diverse trails in modern architecture: fusion of the East and the West, fusion of the traditional and the modern, to say nothing of fusion of art with life.
The architectural characteristics and historical positioning which the historical architecture will be understood better through collecting results from researches which was done on various points of views and positions. Therefore, a study on the layout of the main palace of Goryeo Dynasty also becomes a prerequisite for understanding the architectural characteristics and historical positioning which it possesses. However, the reality is that as the results from the excavation and preceding researches were not integrated together, the understanding of the layout of main palace is remaining on a partial and conceptual level. Therefore, this paper attempted to review in overall the restoration of the layout of the main palace of Goryeo Dynasty using historical documents, precedent researches, excavation maps, topographical map and cadastral maps. Consequently, it was possible to confirm the name of some of the ruins and restore the location and layout of other buildings. The result of this research presented above, will become a basis for understanding the layout of the main palace of Goryeo Dynasty in more realistic and way. Furthermore, it could be used as a fundamental data for related researches.
Choryang Waekwan was the biggest Japanese settlment to house the Japanese diplomatic mission and traders in Korea. Waekwan means Japanese Pavilion literally, but the reality of this Waekwan exceeded much the scale of single architecture. Since Choryang Waekwan was closed in the second half of the nineteenth century, the site of this settlement grew rapidly as the downtown of Busan, which was the first port open to foreign countries in modern Korea. The formation of modern port owes much to the presence of Japanese settlment in Lee Dynasty as long as Choryang was officially designated as the trading port toward Japan and vice versa. Busan is the nearest city to Japan, in fact. Within a day ships could reach Tsushima Island, the island region north of Fukuoka, which played an intermediary role between Seoul and Edo. No architectural remain could be seen on the actual site of Choryang Waekwan. The site has become one of the busiest centers in Busan with quantify of office buildings and shops. The former Busan City Hall was located in this area. The field survey of the site as well as the analysis of historical documents, which were newly found both in Korea and in Japan, enabled to reconstruct the architecture and cityscape of Waekwan by way of computer graphics.
We have focused on the building appearance according to the change of conservation policy and urban fabric in Bukchon, Seoul. The Urban Hanok, urban traditional housing type, had been evolved in modern contort from 1920's to 1960's, that is to say, many buildings(Urban Hanok) in Bukchon area has built up with a lot and road at the same time. But the change of conservation policy has an effect on the urban fabric and building(wooden structure, RC and brick building). Thus many types of building in Bukchon has undergone a various change. The purpose of this paper is to define a change factor of Bukchon buildings. Thus we need to pay attention to policy and urban fabric. We reached the result as follows. First, the change of architecture regulations according to the several policies(an aesthetic area, an altitude area for sky line restriction and so on) brought into building deformation and eventually the historic scenery of Bukchon has been spoiled. Second, the change of policy had an effect on the change of roads and lots. Buildings on a widen road and a united lot was built newly. But new buildings built up with a concrete or brick structure was not in harmony with the historic scenery of Bukchon area. Third, a development method of a large lot with lack prudence(disregarded a scale and size of lot) did damage to Urban hanok and urban fabric. With the understanding on the relationship of buildings, a urban fabric and a policy in Bukchon, we can define the identity and correspond with the urgent request for a the conservation of historic urban scenery In addition we can suggest the policy and the design guidelines for the reservation and rehabilitation for Bukchon, Seoul.
This study based on the hypothesis which the spatial qualities in the Mies's early works are not extinct but potentially immanent in his latter works. In Mies's early works, destruction of outline, centrifugal extension of fluid space, and asymmetry are distinctly showed. These qualities probably revert to the indefiniteness of space. In Mies's latter works, however, these dynamic qualities are disappeared. Geometrically precise outline and exact grid structure represent universal space derived from zero-degree pure box. These qualities probably revert to tile definiteness of space, characterized by the unmovable emptiness. Although Mies works vary in external form, his expression technique of space reveals continually both the qualify of definitive and indefinitive space. For example, in the Museum for a Small City(1942) unbuilt project. elements defined by the perspective are fixed and static, but elements defined by the collages are floated and dynamic. The former reigns over the realized buildings of Mies, while the latter seems to be latent in terms of Schein which transcends reality. If we can penetrate this point, it's possible to read the other side of Mies' architectural works, distinct from both the canonized interpretation and the excessive criticism. Point is that later works of Mies must be understood as interplay of universal space appeared as phenomenon and flowing elements latent in. Architectural space of Mies keeps a distance with actual space through latent manner of being while preserves the empirical actuality It provides us with an occasion which appears only in an instant, in which even the ordinary things reveal its poetics.