The primary object of this study lies in reilluminating the meaning of the Baroque, through studying arts and architecture by means of the features of Baroque aesthetics suggested by Deleuze in his writing 'Le Pli' on the basis of Leibniz's 'Pli' concept. Through this study we can see the following. In the first place, the six features - pli, separation between the inner and the exterior, highs and lows, unfolding, texture and paradigm presented as the features of Baroque aesthetics - have to be understood not as being independent features but as those derived from a series of continuous process of folding and unfolding. In the second place, Deleuze's thinking ranging from the 'Pli' of the Baroque to the paradigm derived on the ground of Leibniz thinking is a dynamic world of folding and unfolding, ultimately seeking unity through the topological changes and succession repeating deterritorization and reterritorization. In the third place, most architectural trends claiming 'Fold Architect' or the 'Pli' of Deleuze as their architectural philosophy are committing errors of mass-producing standardized designs by confining the meaning of Deleuze's 'Pli' concept into a simple reproduction of plied superficial things. With this finding in mind, the concept of folding and unfolding examined through reilluminating the Baroque Architecture where the 'Pli' concept is embodied, suggests to us that the problems of contemporary architecture should be rightened, and shows us that it can become an architectural philosophy which can be concretely realized in architecture.
This paper analyses the railroad trunk line constructed in the Korea since the end of the 19th century. The analysis consists of the following problematics. 1) The process of the decision of the railroad route 2) The relationship of the location of Eupchi and the stations By clarifying the above, the purpose of this paper is to clarify how the morphology of the city in Korea has been affected by the change in the relationship with Korea and Japan. The Empire of Japan has been reconnoitering the Korea since way before the formal contract for the railroad construction was signed. Therefore, the Empire of Japan had a very good understanding of the actual transportation system when it started the construction of the railroad. The railroad construction was used by the Empire of Japan to empower the control over the Korea. For this reason, the new railroad system was constructed as a different system from the former transportation system and the urban system was also affected. Also the relationship of the western powers and Japan around the turn of the 20th century defined the characteristic of the railway system as a pathway through the Korean peninsular to link Japan to the continent. Moreover, being apprehensive about the friction with the western, Japan located the railway stations to avoid the missionary land properties. This made it clear that the restraint relationship between Japan and the western affected the urban special structure.
Hoe-amsa temple was renewed by Zen priest Na-ong(1320-76) in the later Goryeo dynasty(918-1392), and he introduced the institution of Zen Buddhism temple of Yuan dynasty(1271-1368) in China. And in 13-14 century, many Zen Buddhism temple were built in east Asia, like China, Japan, Korea and so on. Hoe-amsa temple became to be ruined in the middle years of Joseon dynasty(1392-1910), and the ruin was excavated recently. The purpose of this study is to make a searching examination the history of Hoe-amsa temple by analyzing the historic records and excavation relics, and to clarify the function of Jeongcheong, east Bang-jang and west Bang-jang of Hoe-amsa temple, by comparative analysis with Bang-jang architecture of Zen Buddhism temple of Yuan dynasty. As the result of this study it can be said like follow. Hoe-amsa temple maintained the form made by priest Na-ong in spite of several times of repair in Joseon dynasty, and it was reflected in excavation relics of now. The Jeongcheon of Hoe-amsa temple was the space called Chimdang where the chief priest performed lectures and ceremony, the west Bang-jang was the living space of chief priest, and the east Bang-jang was lodging for honored guest. The architecture composed by Jeongcheong, east Bang-jang and west Bang-jang was the adaptation of institution of Bang-jang architecture of Zen Buddhism temple in Yuan dynasty, on the base of general architecture form of Goryeo dynasty.
Main theme of this paper is the evaluation of the historical significance of Luciano Baldessari's exhibition works mainly during the Fifties. In order to understand the formal and logical basis of those project, his relationship with the historical Avant-gardes and the consequences expressed in his pavilion projects for the Breda Industrial Company are analyzed. The first part focuses on the influence of Italian Futurism, German Expressionism and Italian Rationalism on the formation and experience of Baldessari during the interwar years. The encounter with these movements determine the interest but also the principles along which Baldessari represents his idea of object, space and place. Specially his professional activities during Fascism would determine his attitude toward political power and the necessity of autonomy in artistic sphere. In the second part, different themes that Baldessari affronted in each project of Breda Pavilions is analyzed. Another important issue regard the historiography of the contemporary architecture. Often, many important works that lies in the threshold of the disciplines such as painting and sculpture and media art were excluded in the history of architecture just because they do not deal with the architectural object. Recently, many elements such as theatrical project and temporary objects are considered as part of urban reality and architecture with acknowledgment of their capacity to create event and situations. Along this thought, not just the reconfiguration on the territory of architecture in present but also the criterion to evaluate the past history of architecture is changing drastically. This study on the pavilions of Baldessari intends to contribute indirectly on the current issue of dominion of architecture, but also to evaluate objectively recent architecture. Consequently, architectural protagonists such as Baldessari and their ephemeral projects would be evaluated compressively in their multiplicity of significance.
The purpose of this study is ultimately subjected to the Orientalism, even though this deals with some positive effects in the realm of art and architecture as the scope of study, because through which the relationship between two different cultures will be discussed. That is to say, this research focused not only on how the presentation of ‘avant-garde’ visual art, which is explained as formal ‘purity’ and ‘abstraction’ as the characteristics of modern arts, could be made in the transition to the 20th's World, but also on what is the role and meaning of Eastern thoughts, which is popular in that time, for the new philosophical background of the artistic revolution. As a result, this study found that a lot of ‘avant-garde’ architects such as F. L. Wright, M. Mahony in Prairie School and L. Sullivan, D. Burnham, J. Root in Chicago School, and Lauweriks, H. P. Berlage who introduced Wright's works into the Europe, had possessed the ‘Universal Philosophy’ including Unitarianism, Transcendentalism, Deism, and Theosophy which are all influenced by Oriental religions and thoughts through historic western philosophers, although it is generally well-known that W. Kandinsky and P. Mondrian were belong to that. Furthermore, they gave attention to the Oriental religions and thoughts in that time, eventually made a historical progressive process of unification of thoughts between East and West. In a word, the new universalism was the philosophical background that made the artist's idea and presentation on ‘from Being into Becoming’.