This study aims to clarify the architectural characteristics of three houses of Choseon Exhibition. Exposition/exhibitions were thought to be a model for the world. It shows the real status of the development, and thinking with visions at that times; therefore, exhibited house models would be a good source for what to be considered for the ideal houses of that times. Through the study, we could find out as belows. 1. The houses exhibited conserved the sitting-on-floor living style, otherwise the most proposals for house improvement suggested a chair-and-table style because of its hygienic quality and integration of the life at home and at work(school, too). 2. The spacial scheme for-family prior over for-guest was emphasized, but models at the exhibition were structured with Japanese traditional spacial program, such as Jashiki(座敷), Kyakunoma(客の間) or Tsuginoma(次の間), which were all Tatami-floored. 3. Through this exhibition, it is clarified that the architectural society in colonial Korea also tried to improve the modern housings, not only direct reception of the developed proposals. These houses was planned with the acceptance of the locality, such like Ondol, a floor heating facility which the Japanese engineer improve the efficiency. 4. Also these exhibited houses became a start to recognize a house as a product, and spurred on commercialization. As the result, we could find out that these exhibited houses accepted the modern housing proposals selectively, and that even if the exhibitions shows the advance in usual these houses were planned with the very conservative notions.
This study examines the details and characteristics of prizewinning plans of Cho-Sun housing plan competition promoted by Daily Cho-Sun Company during Japanese colonial period. The main features of Cho-Sun housing plan competition were that the competition held with an application of popular newspaper readers and a judging committee was composed of only Korean architects, especially Park, Gil-Ryong as the president of the board of examiners. Cho-Sun housing plan competition put ideological factors for the improvement of living as like advancing to the cultured(modern) life, respecting for family life, respecting for privacy of family members and so on. First of all, the competition suggested the direction of the improvement of dwelling spaces which focused on making harmonious home life. This study found common characteristics of prizewinning plans of Cho-Sun housing plan competition as the result. First, Cho-Sun housing plan competition introduced a centralized house plan as a model of the improvement of small-sized houses. Second, architectural orders of western or japanese style mingled with ones of korean traditional style in prizewinning plans as entrance hall, western style reception room(parlour), maid's room, bathroom for example. And a manner of seating using chairs was brought into the style of living which would be assumed in the prizewinning plans. Third, traditional way of composing dwelling spaces was maintained, receiving the characteristics of dwelling spaces of japanese style simultaneously, which central corridor was put at the heart of house for improving arrangement of rooms and flow lines. Fourth, lavatory and bathroom were placed inside of the house.
This research was to analyze the border signal-fire which is the main facility of military protective duty for safety of sea side in chosun dynasty. The results of this research were described separately as follows. 1. Five types of site plan of signal-fire were observed, which is circle, half-circle, oval, round-rectangular. The majorities were circle type in eastern area. 2. Plan configuration of signal-fire stand which is separated with circle, rectangular type roughly was constructed with circle type generally. The height of signal-fire stand was about 2～3m. The diameter of signal-fire stand was 8～10m. Building base that protect ground moisture and infilteration of rainfall was found in 9 border singal-fire, the height of it was about 0.3m～2.5m. 3. Trench was mainly circle type and average width was 3～4m. However the depth was almost observed as 1m, originally, it was estimated it has more depth. 4. The height of protective wall remained until present was about 1m, the depth was about average 2.5m. 5. The storage of border signal-fire has rectangular dimension, several types of 1.8×1.2 m～5.7×4.4m, square(間) of 1×1～2×1. The building material was stone and located below or near the signal-fire stand.
Aldo Rossi explained Roman Forum as a significant urban artifact, because Roman Forum analogically showed not only an image of Roman Empire but also a figure of primitive design for its region. Thus the comparison and analysis between characteristics of Aldo Rossi’s architectural works which are based on the theory of ‘Analogical city’ and the forums, the urban artifacts, was proceeded in this study. Consequently, it was discovered that Aldo Rossi had used his analogical thinking from the forum for his architectural languages such as gable roofs, square windows with depth, columns and so on. His analogical use of organizing spaces, such as courtyard type and pillar corridor type, has also shown that their types came from forum spaces. His analogical aspects of the forum: a space where urban images are analogically formed; were expressed in the ‘Theater of Science’ with the urban architecture form as the actor and the Theatre as the stage for analogical urban performances. Nevertheless, the expression of primitive design which divides the Roman Forum from other forums was actualized in 'the Theater of the World'. He not only analogically used types from Roman Forum in architectural design but also used boat in Water space, which decided the lifestyle and culture of Venice even before the civilization, to express the primitive design of Venice. Consequently, Aldo Rossi, by aiming the severance from the tradition, provided the possibility of explaining the newest modern type within the historical meaning by forming type which finds its continuance in history through ‘the Theater of the World’ and through analogical thinking along with the level of modern culture, to our urban architectural atmosphere that has lost its historical meanings.
In the book of <Ancient and New Creation of Bulguksa Temple>, it is recorded that the names of ingressive stone stairs to the main shrine were Cheongwoongyo(blue cloud bridge) and Baekwoongyo(white cloud bridge) and the names of stairs to the paradise hall were Yeonwhagyo(lotus bridge) and Chilbogyo(seven treasure bridge). But, the ingressive stone stairs to the main shrine and the paradise hall are single consecutive stairs with 2 levels respectively. Because of this, it is rather hard to clearly designate the names to the upper level and the lower level stairs. But, of the stairs to the Paradise hall, the lower stairs have a carving of lotus, and the upper stairs have seven stairs. In this aspect of artifacts, we can safely assume that the upper stairs are Chilbogyo and the lower are Yeonwhagyo. But, for the ingressive stairs to the main shrine, there is no such artificial hint. So, it is difficult to designate the upper and the lower stairs for the two bridges. Especially, it is not clear whether the descriptive order of "lower stairs upper stairs" in the names of Yeonwhagyo and Chilbogyo can be applied to the names of stairs to the main shrine. It is because the general descriptive order is "upper lower" rather than "lower upper." Even though there have been many studies on the Bulguksa temple, the study on the ingressive stone stairs to the main shrine has not made till now. Therefore, the study on the position of Cheongwoongyo and Baekwoongyo stairs can have its validity. In this paper, the positional approach to Cheongwoongyo and Baekwoongyo has been made in following aspects: First, the temple structure of Bulguksa; Second, the five element theory of oriental philosophy and the Book of Changes; Third, the directional consciousness of Buddhism. Through the aspects, the validity of up-down position of Cheongwoongyo and Baekwoongyo has been sought. In this research, it can be concluded that the upper level of ingressive stone stairs to the main shrine of Bulguksa is Cheongwoongyo and the lower level is Baekwoongyo. When considered in the Buddhist directional consciousness, it forms the total structure of "East- Cheongwoongyo·South- Baekwoongyo·West- Yeonwhagyo·North- Chilbogyo."