This study includes a review of the relevant literature and data on the Gyeolseong Eupseong, a coastal castle town of the Joseon Period. During the process of building the Gyeolseong Eupseong, Eupchi(administrative office) was transferred to several different locations for the following reasons:. first, to strengthen defensive capabilities by utilizing the locational advantages of the Seokdang Mountain Fortress, second, to secure sufficient space for holding the castle and have access to water in times of emergencies, third, to strengthen coastal defence by utilizing geographical advantages. Most of the Gyeolseong Eupseong was damaged during the Japanese colonial period. At present, there remain only part of the castle's facilities and some facilities that were restored later in modern times; 4 building sites have been identified. Remaining and destructed buildings can be identified through old maps(the local maps of 1872) and Zirizi and Eupzi(geography books). Also identified were 2 castle gate sites where a 1,500m-long stone castle wall and an ongseong(a crescent-shaped defensive structure), 5 chiseongs, and a most were constructed. The Gyeolseong area is assumed to have been a strategic foothold to defend the west coast from the days before the Three Kingdom Period. However it is very difficult to find any records created before the Joseon Period. Therefore, the time of the restoration of the Eupchi should be determined based on records created in the late Joseon Period. Finally, excavation work needs to be done to identify the locations of the castle's facilities.
This Hee Kyeong Ru, a kind of "Nu-Gak” in Gwangju is a high storied old government official building memorizes the recovery of Gwangju area reputation. Hee Kyeong Ru, literally means, delightful and happy occasions. This kind of the buildings were build for the receptions and the banquets for the high government officials in travelling areas to areas. It provided very high formality as compared to the buildings in the mountains. Nu-Gak buildings have a lot in common, since they had been constructed under the influence of the then time period and for the common reasons. Several records about Hee Kyeong Ru can be found in the old literatures, poetries, pictures and atlases. Also, we can see the shape of the building and the location through the mark in the old map. According to the historic materials, Nu-Gak buildingsof other old goveenment offices with Hee Kyeong Ru are similar to that of the size and construction. So we can draw the common points of the existing old official buildings and could assume the original form of Hee Kyeong Ru. In conclusion, we need to restore Hee Kyeng Ru as the historical meaningful building and use it as a representative cultural building in Gwangju.
Seokgatap and Dabotap are representing the tower patterns in 「Gyeonbotappum」of the Lotus Sutra. It is very peculiar, for the description on 「Gyeonbotappum」is usually made in terms of 'the two Buddhas sitting side by side'. If 'the two Buddhas sitting side by side' is describing the situation in Dabotap, the double structure of Seokgatap and Dabotap can be said to symbolize the scriptural description in a different viewpoint. Its correct comprehension is pretty important in understanding Bulguksa. For this, this paper first arranged the critical minds and flows about the faith objects in Indian Buddhism. And, it was considered how these aspects were accumulated through Saddharma-puṇḍarīka sūtra. Secondly, it was considered why 「Gyeonbotappu m」took the typical symbolism in Saddharma-puṇḍarīka sūtra(Lotus Sutra). These parts should be necessarily considered in advance in that Seokgatap and Dabotap were derived from the form of 「Gyeonbotappum」. Based on this approach, the author checked the actual aspects of Seokgatap that the tower was built on a natural rock ground and the stones surrounding the tower are constituting the 8-directional Lotus site. With these two aspects, we could get the clue on the foundation time of Bulguksa that its founder had intended. In that Dabotap was formed on the basis of 「Gyeonbotappum」, the features of Dabotap is very important in comprehending its foundation viewpoint. As a result, the viewpoint of double towers in Bulguksa can be said to be the one that the world of suffering was to change to the Pure Land after Sakyamuni preached the Lotus Sutra on the top of Mt. Gṛdhrakūṭa and Prabhūtaratna-tathāgata proved it. This foundation viewpoint shows us clearly that 'the Lotus Buddhist Country' existed in parallel to the Avatamska Buddhist Country. It secures an appropriate meaning in that it can complement or adjust our understanding on the 'Buddhist country (Bulguk)' of Bulguksa where the Avatamska Idea is emphasized relatively highly as shown in the whole title of Bulguksa as 'Avatamska Bulguksa.'
Old Russian Legation(1890) has been attracted public attention in terms of politics and foreign affairs than architectural style because of conditions of location and historical incident. Though it was heavily damaged during the Korean war, and only the tower has been restored, it is very important in architectural history in Korea, because it is the oldest western style brick building which is existing with the old bishop's house in Myeong-Dong. But it has been impossible to reveal exactly the original form as there has been few reliable materials(picture, drawing, document) and it's remains were nearly destroyed owing to development of the surroundings. Recently the decisive document(site outline map) was found, and new research on the architect Sabatine was studied. So I can get into close with the original form by the results. In this study, I tried to conjecture the original form of the old Russian legation(the size, style, plan and indoor space, arrangement of attached facilities) and I checked the location and structure of the room where King Gojong stayed when he took refuge, and the use of the passage in the basement.
If we take account of the ‘Architectural Tradition’ which aims a construction of better environment, we can see that this tradition has ended historically toward Utopia. And the concrete concepts of utopia mainly started on the Renaissance periods. The Utopias were described well in the literatures which contained particularly three representative utopian books in Renaissance period. The one was the most famous novel <Utopia, 1516> by Sir Thomas More and the other were <La citta del sole, 1602> by Tommaso Campanella and <The New Atlantis, 1624> by Francis Bacon. These novels expressed ideal commonwealths in which inhabitants exist under perfect conditions, ideally perfect places or state of things. The plans of utopia are complete projects of image, its goal is an political, social and economical improvement according to the eras. Their utopias mostly had characteristics as follows; their shape of islands were almost circle, their shape of cities were rectangularity or circle and attached importance to geometrical compositions, their structure of cities were self-sufficiency in closed spaces and their architectural characteristics were uniformity, simplicity and non-ornament. And these architectural characteristics are urban and architectural traditions in communist countries. Also their utopian novels had not much explanations to daily lives of people like as birth, death, relative, mental conflict or authority, money, art. So their utopian novels were not practical and had inappropriate aspects.
According to it, a final goal of this study sets up ‘Renovation of the Red brick architecture’ and development of theoretical foundation and substantial conservation about Red brick architecture through historical records must be settled without delay. Firstly, it analyzes related terminology and adjusts brick architecture's history and features for architectural authenticity about Red brick architecture. It would study production and construction process of brick in korea. From analysis of records, brick of traditional meaning is ‘Jeondol’ and western brick of modern meaning is ‘Red brick’. ‘Brick’ defines a common designation. This study shows definition of words based on documents published until 19th century and a korean language and architecture terms dictionary. In view of this results, the meaning of brick which combines different types extensively uses ‘Chu(甃)’, ‘Jeon(塼, 磚, 甎)’, ‘Byeok(甓)’ according to the purpose of use and the current of the times. In case of ‘Jeon’, it uses jointly different types such as ‘塼’, ‘磚’, ‘甎’. but ‘塼’ is frequently used. Even though these words like ‘byeok(甓)’ used individual or combination types until the late 19th century, there is no use because of japanese terms in japanese colonial. After liberation, it was the term of the traditional brick. Brick is generally used through modern times. In an unabridged Korean language dictionary, it defines this term as orthodox korean ‘壁乭’ and ‘甓乭’. At that time of japanese colonial, ‘Yeonwa(煉瓦)’ used in combination with brick. Due to influence it, it partly uses until now but it is not in common use. Also, a Korean language dictionary contains transcription of ‘Yeonwa’ with same definition as ‘Byeokdol(甓乭)’. In the other side, it results from translating japanese into Korean. It would make exact definition of ‘Yeonwa’.
This study was to analyze the architectural characteristics and facade construction of brick masonry auditorium through the Auditorium of Namsan Primary School in 1936. The results of this study were described separately as follows. 1. The auditorium is located away from the school buildings, and its plane is a chamber of rectangle type with an entrance installed on each of the four sides. 2. The external appearance is Renaissance eclectic style, laid red bricks on the lower wall of the window and having a mansard roof. The front and the rear are symmetric with respect to the projected wall at the center. 3. As to the structure of the building, a concrete lower wall was built on the concrete continuous footing, and the brick wall was constructed on the lower wall. The roof is queen post roof truss, and the wall girders were installed on the brick wall. 4. The auditorium has had a number of repairing and maintenance works, which changed the roof and windows outside and the floor, walls, ceiling, etc. inside. 5. The decorative elements of external appearance include lower wall, brick wall, entrances, windows, roof, and dormer windows. The brick wall gives verticality and solidity to the surface of the wall, and the lower wall and wall girders are connected like a cornice of the wall. The surface of the mansard roof and dormer windows express a stable vertically oriented shape.
Jeongrimsaji as temple remains of Baekje Sabi period, its re-excavation has been carried three times in full scale. As a result, the buildings in left and right of lecture hall was largely identified in 3 forms. First, layout of small buildings in left and right of lecture hall. Second, layput of corridor in left and right of lecture hall. Third, layout of construction site in the north of corridor in left and right of lecture hall. Above second is included into remains of Gorye, the third is included into remains of Baekje - the remains were almost ruined then. The first form and third form in above is different each other in size of buildings, form of layout, and location. It is important to investigate these points: the time of constructing the buildings; what position have the use and function of the buildings in the temple? ; transition process of layout of the Buddhist temple. In this context, of temple remains in Baekje during the 5~7th century, the cases where construction sites in left and right of lecture hall and construction site in the north of corridor are identified, have been reviewed. Based on this review, the use and function of buildings, their transition process were investigated. The survey results show that small buildings in left and right of lecture hall existed in the middle and later period of the 6th century. During the later 6th century ~ the 7th century, construction site in narrow and long square shape was located in left and right of lecture hall instead of small buildings in the north of corridor. Therefore, it is identified that the aforementioned thing is earlier stage and the latter thing is later stage.
King Seong carried out the large-scale construction transferring the capital from Wungjin (Gongju) to Sabi (Buyeo) in 538. But because most of the Buyeo area was the low swamp in the time, it needed above all to form a site before transferring the capital. Until recently, in addition to the scientific excavation, the relief excavations for the construction of new building or the formation of road were conducted on many sites in the Buyeo area. As a result, many remains which were formed on the low swamp including the temple site of Neungsan-ri, Dongna Castle, the remains of Ssangbuk-ri (280-5 Bukpo, Hyeonnaedeul) and the remains of Gua-ri were identified. Also in these remains, the various engineering construction methods irrespective of the nature of remains were used for the purpose of the soft ground reinforcement as follows: mattress method of construction, pile designation, stone alignment, filing of decomposed granite soil, culverts and storage tanks. Especially, the mattress method of construction and the pile designation are thought to be the traditional engineering construction method at least in that they are appeared since the Three Han Sates era. And these soft ground construction methods had an effect on the construction of reservoir in Japan at the time. In the future, the construction method for soft ground reinforcement shall be concerned and studied further in the architecture and the civil engineering as well as the archeology.
This article is about the study on construction contractors in Daegu during the Japanese Colonial Rule. The first construction contractors who involved with Kyong-bu railroad work in 1904 personally. But, after they go through the bidding method, changed by the Japanese Government General of Korea in 1922, and the second bid rigging in 1932, contractors was changed gradually the organization into unlimited partnership, limited partnership or stock corporation. The number of them was increased. Most contractors were Japanese, and organized a limited partnership which has been capitalized at 30,000 won. On the other hand, Korean contractors couldn't work at an important part, except for the personal activities of Youngsil Lee(李永實). They were usually employed as consultants or field deputies by Japanese contractors. After the Liberation, Japanese construction contractors returned to Japan, however Tatuoka-kumi(龍岡組), Yasiro-kumi(屋代組) and Sakano-kumi(坂野組) that was leading the business which were took over by Koreans. They were leading architecture field in Daegu.
The purpose of this study is to understand the transition process of Korean architecture and urbanism from traditional state to modern state, by investigating the development of modern survey and the characteristics of survey drawings during the Great Han Empire (大韓帝國), the early modern Korea. The governmental efforts of the Great Han Empire to introduce a modern survey system named Gwangmu Land survey (光武量田事業) ended in failure. After the Russo-Japanese War (露日戰爭, 1904-1905), the Residency-General (統監府) held the hegemony of Korean Peninsula. It reintroduced a modern survey system for the survey of land and buildings all over the country and enforced the Land and Buildings Certification System (土地家屋證明制度). Since then, the land and buildings survey was propagated rapidly and the modern system for land use was gradually organized. With the progress of modern survey, the survey bureau of Cabinet (內閣) and Department of Royal Household (宮內府) created survey drawings that had some characteristics of colonialism. Takjibu (度支部) produced cadastral maps of major cities, with which the modern land system was developed. In addition, the Royal Property Bureau (帝室財産整理局) produced survey drawings of land and buildings owned by the Royal Household which were finally converted into modern facilities.
This thesis is to analyze the origin and transformation of the official building registers of Korean traditional temples, and also to suggest the amendment of their wrong archives. Especially, this study is to examine these subjects focused on Beomeo-sa which has maintained fine registers. The results are as follow; 1. In Chosun Dynasty, the Ip-an had been used, and in the period of Daehan-Empire, the Ga-gei had been used as each official registers for the common buildings. The other hand, the lists of properties and the legal registers had been used as official registers for the temple buildings between 1911 and 1962. 2. The current official building registers have been firstly recorded under <Building Law> in 1962. At that time, the current official registers have been also recorded for the Buddhist temple buildings. 3. Most of the official building registers of Buddhist temples are incomplete. Especially, these have usually the indistinct building names and wrong building areas. These were mainly caused by direct copying of the old registers recorded in 1956, the period of Buddhist confusion. Furthermore, the registers have been poorly operated by monks and offices. 4. Therefore, the registers has to be corrected as follow; The omitted buildings have to be added and the duplicated buildings have to be removed in the summary heading registers. The indistinct building names recorded in 1956 have to be correct into actual proper building names. The wrong building areas recorded in 1956 have to be correct into actual measurement building areas.
Jukseoru as an official pavilion of the government, one of the eight sceneries in Gwndong Area, is located on the cliff over Osipcheon River. This paper interprets form and space of the pavilion with restored old life by analyzing pictures of official party in 18th century in Chosun Dynasty. Every part of the space is occupied by persons by the class and duty: the pricipal guest, nobles, subordinates, gisaengs, court musicians, and guards from the high to the low and from the inside to the outside. Applying the analysis to the Jukseoru pavilion, the noblest lord takes sit on the platform in front of folded screen at main bay under checked ceiling, enclosed by low timber beam. The next northern end bay is a place for subordinates' and servants' waiting for preparation for rice wine. Southern end entrance bay is not a result of later addition but deliberately and originally made for lower place outside the railing of wooden floor: for a waiting woman gisaeng, and subordinates. Outside under the eaves on the platform with bedrock, artificial stone and soil is a place for court musicians, subordinates, and guards. The yard in front of the building is a place for preparing meals by cookers. Every detailed ornamental form is different each other by the place for the occupied class. Existing theory tells that the building, 7 bays gable-and-hipped roof, is a result of structural extention of 2 bays at the 5 bays gabled-roof. However, through the interpretation of old pictures and application to the pavilion, the present Juseoru is not a result of later structural addition, but deliberately designed creation suited to life in hierarchical traditional society.