The main buildings of the important Buddhist temples - the pagoda, the Buddhist sanctum, the lecture hall - was surrounded by the cloister until Koryo Dynasty. And the Buddhist sanctum was located the center. It meant hat the Buddhist sanctum was important building. It is very important thing that we understand the usage of the interior space because the architectural space consists of the unified space by the organic function of the interior space and the exterior space and the exterior space. But there is not so much the study on the interior space of the Buddhist sanctum. So, the purpose of this study is to understand of the interior space of the Buddhist sanctum in Ancient and Medieval Times. Till now, it was impossible that the buddhist monk or the General public entered the Buddhist sanctum in Ancient and Medieval Times because they regarded the Buddhist sanctum as the place of sacrosanctity and the floor was finished by brick. But, we saw that they could enter the Buddhist sanctum. Of course the floor of the Buddhist sanctum was finished by bricks, but they spread mats on the floor, took off his shoes in the interior space and used the furniture for sitting on. The plan of the Buddhist sanctum was designed by the process of the ceremony and the way of the enshrinement of the Buddhist statues because it is the place to enshrine the Buddhist statues. They performed the ceremony like as pray, worship, offer food to Buddha, HaengDo-an act to turn round as object of worship and so on in the interior space of the Buddhist sanctum.
After a digital modelling method has been introduced into architectural design in 1990s, a radical change was taken place in generating architectural form and space. Many architects have a view that digital modelling method is the most important invention in the visual presentation since the moment that architect Philippo Brunelleschi experimented initially the linear perspective. Therefore, in this study, comparing between perspectiva artificialis and digital modelling method, we clarify 1) the relationship of architectural design and presentation method, 2) the practical and philosophical background inherent in digital modelling method which played key role in developing non-representational architecture, 3) and the principles of n0n-representational architecture like diagram, folding, and trace.
Hugo Haring(1882-1952) belonged to that special generation of architects born in the 1880s which became responsible for the establishment of Modern Movement in the 1920s as W. Gropius, Mies Van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, etc. Although he have been overlooked by many historian. He was a key figure of the Modern architecture and as the main theorist for Organic stream in German architecture. He is well-known for his theory of 'Neues Bauen(New Building)', the organic functionalism that is epitomized as the design process from the inside outwards, starting with the life-processes of dwelling. So he argued that the builder must become aware of the life process his building is to serve, and he should not impose a form but try to find the form. These concepts are expressed well in his key-words, the 'Organwerk(organ-work)' and 'Leistungsform(form as achievement)'s. Haring's theory can be found in the short early essay, ""Wege zur Form(approaches to form)"" of 1925. But His concept of 'function' is based on the speciality and individual identity that concerned him from the start, not purely pragmatic aspects. After 1940s his theory moved increasingly in this direction. He defined this as the transition from 'Organwerk' to 'Gesetaltwerk', from mere anatomy to essence, being, personality, life. it suggest that Hugo Haring's idea of Gestalt is a dimension of mystical of symbolic meaning. This paper is about the way in which this theoretical transition can be parallel with contemporary philosophers as E. Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms and M. Heidegger's phenomenology. And the key example of this viewpoint is <Gut Garkau>(1921-1926) near Lubeck in Germany, with its 'cowshed' of pear shaped plan devised around the requirements and rituals of farm. This study presents the symbolic conception of Hugo Haring's theory can propose the ability of a symbolic intuition as a view that re-integrate technical thinking with knowledge of other kinds beyond the immediate material.
Manfredo Tafuri's Ideological criticism in architecture has opened a new horizon to interpreting architecture in modern capitalist architecture for it views architecture not just as a style or formal invention, but in terms of socio-economical process. It offered a comprehensive understanding of a chaotic situation of contemporary architecture and historical meaning modern architectural movements in relation with capitalistic development. However, it has been criticized as architectural pessimism which does not allow any possibility for progressive architectural practice. It was also criticized of epidemiological problem of how one could be outside ideology without assuming true consciousness against false consciousness of ideology. Tafuri solves this problem by assuming Althusserian activist concept of knowledge and suggest the concept of labor of writing history of critical historians, instead of a design for utopian society, as a possible critical architectural practice. However, I argue that ultimately ideological criticism does not deny architectural practice itself, nor researches on formal characteristics of architecture. The problem lies rather in the architectural intellectuals' attachment to the traditional concept of architect as a from giver to the society. By rejecting this myth and broadening the concept of architectural practice from design to production, we can find that Ideological problem is not architectural pessimism, but rather it opens up a new way of approaching to the problem of architectural practice in modern capitalist society.