The Municipal Building of Busan was the first western-style building of Korea in 1879. It was also the predecessor of Busan Metropolitan City Hall. On the other hand, the Municipal Building of Busan was a symbolic structure that shows the history of Busan. The Municipal Building of Busan has inherited the construction location and site, including the speciality of Choryangwaegwan, and is a good example of the process of inheriting the authority of the former space through the appropriation of the building. The Municipal Building of Busan was relocated to the edge of the coast in 1934 because a small and dilapidated building failed to function properly. The relocation of the Municipal Building of Busan in 1934 was the origin of changing the coastal space in downtown. As a result, landfill sites along the coast were in the limelight and developed into the downtown area of Busan after Korea's liberation.
The general contractor business in South Korea settled in the railway construction during the Daehan Empire, but depending on the construction intention and circumstances of the railroad, relationship among employer-contractor-subcontractor and their roles under the system of the construction process had changed. At the time of laying the Gyeongin and Gyeongbu-rail, the Empire, which had no capital and technology, passed all the power and responsibility of the rail laying to the contractor, who was involved in most of the process. After this, the empire tried to lay Gyeongui-railroad without the help of other countries. Japan prepared for the Russo-Japanese War and decided to construct the railway rapidly, and completed the railway in parallel with direct management work and contract work. From that time on, the general contractor would only do the work. During the construction of railroad in Daehan empire, the general contract business system was established. The ambiguous process was sorted out and divided. At this time, subjects in charge of design and construction has been divided. The internal organization of the project owner and the contractor were organaized and specialized.
Ui-Gum-Bu(義禁府) is regarded as a key organization that reflects the power of the royal authority, mainly because it directly obeys the king’s command and retains the power to punish or pardon government officials for severe crimes such as treason or significant breach of Confucian ethics. For this reason, Ui-Gum-Bu held a higher place in the organizational hierarchy of the government than other similar offices such as Hyung-J o(刑 曹), Sa-Heon-Bu(司憲府) and Po-Do-Cheong(捕盜廳). This characteristic of Ui-Gum-Bu is also evident in the architectural style and composition of the office building. The figures of the Ui-Gum-Bu office is depicted in detail in the paintings listed in Gum-Oh-Gye-Cheop(金吾契帖, a record of Ui-Gum-Bu office meetings, and descriptions in the code book Gum-Oh-Hun-Rog(金吾契帖), both written in 18th century. The purpose of this study is to reveal the overall transition process of the Ui-Gum-Bu office building from the beginning until its demolition in the early 20th century. Based on research materials of 18th century, its architectural composition and characteristics will be dealt in detail.
Architecture is the historical record of a society. Residential culture is one of the cultures, and includes all the living and customs of people living in the current society. In particular, the Native residence has the research value of changing the living culture because it contains the lives of farmers. The residential culture of the Korean-chinese people contains the poor, agricultural, and immigrant life that began as a livelihood. Therefore, residential culture is an important part of the Korean-chinese culture. However, due to population movement and urbanization, the deepening and aging of the rural community caused the destruction of the residential culture, and the residentials that had been vacant for many years were destroyed, and a large number of risky residential reconstructions are underway. At the point of progress from a voluntary personal building culture to a public building culture built by the government, a study on Renovation of dilapidated Building and a more reasonable residential reform plan is needed. Our housing culture should not only improve the living environment of current life, but also inherit the housing culture contained in history.
Historically, rhythm has played a key role not only in musical composition, but also in architectural design. In 1893, architectural theorist and art scholar August Schmarsow, in "The Essence of Architectural Creation,” created a new definition of architecture as space-creation and characterized rhythm as a design principle. However, this new idea was confronted by Heinrich Wölfflin. While Schmarsow’s theory represents a dynamic world-view based on anthropomorphism, the architectural theory of Wölfflin is based on the notion of harmony, displaying a kind of conservative stasis. These two main streams have greatly influenced the development of modern architecture. The concept of space has prevailed in the discourse of modern architecture, but the principle of rhythm has seldom received any positive recognition. This article introduces and develops the concept of rhythm and disputes whether Behrens and Frankl in particular, two who dispute Schmarsow’s theories, have used the concept of rhythm in terms of space. I conclude that they could not overcome the notion of the physical—the body —, thus their use of the term rhythm is incongruous with the notion of space. The idea of rhythm in architectural creation remains an up and coming idea.
Jeongamsa Sumano Stupa(Korean National Treasure No. 332) is a brick like stone stupa and it is considered that this stupa was built in the Later Silla period or in the early part of the Koryo period, considering its structure and style. This Buddhist stupa is highly significant in Korean Buddhism since it was built to enshrine Buddhist sarira reliquaries that 'Jajang' brought from China in the 7th century, according to the 『Overlooked Historical Records of the Three Korean Kingdoms,『三國遺事』』. However, the stupa was positioned at the very unique location. It was positioned not at the center of Jeongamsa Temple, but at the separate edifice. The location of Jeongamsa Sumano Stupa indicates that this stupa embodies the nature of Mahaparinirvana treasure palaces and that this stupa was recognized as a solemn symbol, which reflected a sarira faith. Jeongamsa Sumano Stupa is the only brick stone stupa built in Gangwon province. It is worth noticing that this stupa was mostly made of dolostones, found around this region, and thereby regional characteristics were reflected in this stupa. The other interesting fact about Jeongamsa Sumano Stupa is that there are many records available which include information about stupa's reconstruction, considering that there aren't many records of other stupas. The most representative records are 5 pieces of memorial stones which include information about when and on what ground the stupa was reconstructed as well as information about originators of the stupa. In conclusion, Jeongamsa Sumano Stupar could be regarded as the academically valuable material since it is considered very important and helpful for understanding not only the history of Korean Buddhist stupas, but also so many other things such as construction techniques, styles of brick pagoda and brick stone stupa, and such.