This writing is to understand some trends and its meaning of Regionalism Architecture in Jeju Island since 1950's.This thesis began with an interestin the identity crisis implicitin the simultaneous striving formodernism and the so-called regionalvalues in Jeju Island.Regionalism is a response in architecturalterms to re-establish continuity in a given place between pastand presentforms,and also a uniqueresultrelated to particularplaces,culturesand climatesin region.Thisisone wayoflookingattheissuesofregionalidentity. Thestudy began by observing thegeneralcharacteristicsofcontemporary ideason Regionalism inJejuarchitecture.Thismeansthattracingthehistoryofdevelopmentof Regionalism architecture in research area is notthe focus ofthis thesis.The thesis demonstratesthatRegionalism architecturesin Jeju showssometrendsrelated to the local cultural elements (or ideas) such like traditionalarchitectural forms,natural environment,local construction-materials,etc.In summation,in the perspective of Regionalism architecture,mostofbuildingsin Jeju bring outthem only asvernacular architectureasitwasonceproduced,by thesimplecombination andimitation without anycreativeinteractionoftheregionalculture. Istressthe pointin thispaperthat,in overthelastfifty years,therehavebeen very narrowed attemptstodesign theregionalvaluesin themain,and alsopointout thatthereareproblemsinthemannerinwhichlocalarchitectshavegoneabouttrying to define the regional themes.So,a grate depth is required to understand the phenomenonthatJejuareaiswithitsvariousnuancesoftraditions,art,culture,climate and lightand then to reinterpretitinto the modern building type with allthe high sense.In addition to that,someconclusionsarereached on futuredirectionsand the significanceofthestudy.
The history to have used lime in building construction was much long without distinctionoftheEastortheWest.Theancientnationsofkoreanpeninsulahadused limeasconstructionmaterial.Thewitnesswasdiscoveredinthekings'tombsoffifth century. In the Joseon dynasty(15〜19c), what applied several developed lime compoundsto thekings'tombshavebeen recorded in 'Sanleong-Uigwe(山陵儀軌)'& 'Yeonggeon-Uigwe(營建儀軌)' ofthose days documents.Therefore,this paper is to examinethewholeproceduresfrom theproductandprovisionoflimetoitsapplication throughthosedaysdocuments. Following conclusionshavebeen reached through thestudy.Threelimecompounds tobedevelopedforthekings'tombswasextendedlyappliedtoresidentialgovernment buildingsstepby stepwithinthecurrentoftime.Thesecompoundstobeusedinthe kings'tombsoftheJoseondynastyhadbeencorrelatedtothoseoftheancientnations, whichwerenationsofkoreanpeninsulainnarrow range,chineseandorientnationsin broad range. These compounds have possibilities of development as the environmental-friendly building material. And these compounds should provide a standard specification for conservation & restoration of the traditionaland cultural properties.Icould confirm thatthe whole procedures had notbeen developed within limited space-time ofthe specified nation & period,butwithin interactions of the nations & periods.In the periods which disturb its interaction,the expansion of productivityinbuildingconstructionwasinterfered.
This research was to analyze the inland signal-fire which is the main facility of military protective duty for safety ofland in chosun dynasty.The results ofthis researchweredescribedseparatelyasfollows. 1.Five types of site plan of signal-fire were observed,which is circle,oval, rectangular,indeterminateform.Themajoritieswereovaltype. 2.Plan configuration of brazier which is separated with circle,rectangular type roughly wasconstructed with circle type generally.The heightofbrazierwas about 3～4.5m.The diameter ofbrazier was 1.5～2.5m.Building base thatprotectground moistureandinfilteration ofrainfallwasfoundin 5inlandsingal-fire,theheightofit wasabout0.3m～2.5m. 3.Theheightofprotectivewallremaineduntilpresentwasabout1m,thedepthwas aboutaverage1.2m. 4.Entrance was mainly stairs or open type and average width was 1.0～1.2m. Howeverthe depth was almostobserved as 1m,originally,itwas estimated ithas moredepth. 5.The storage of inland signal-fire has rectangular dimension,severaltypes of 1.8×1.2m～5.7×4.4m,square(間) of 1×1～2×1.The building material was stone and locatedbelow ornearthebrazier
This study was to analyze the philologicalcharacterofHuangdizhaijing(黃帝宅經). Huangdizhaijing isafirststagescripturesofYangzhaiFengshui(陽宅風水)whichisthe firstlymentionedbookinSikuquanshu(四庫全書).Huangdizhaijingisanobligatory book to read to understand the palace ofancientdynasty as wellas generalhousing of people. Huangdizhaijing measured housing conditions divided into Yangzhai(陽宅) and Yinzhai(陰宅).The contents succeeded traditionalYangzhaiguan(陽宅觀)which values direction(方向)andJiri(吉日).Thatis,classifying Yangzhaiinto24directionsbasedon QiofYinYang(陰陽之氣)theory,generalcontentsofHuangdizhaijingexplainsregulatory rulesand propitiousday in accordancewith theYangzhaimathematicalprinciplesand archaeology through Jixiongshenshalun(吉凶神煞論).Huangdizhaijing includesthekernel ofunderstanding thechinesearchitectsystem andhousing culturebecauseitdescribes closereciprocalinfluencesbetweenmanandhouse. It seems that the author of Huangdizhaijing is not the emperor but he was represented by descendants who systemized the idea ofHuangdizhaijing in Yangzhai shu(陽宅書).Being theremany ofdocumentspresentedby emperorlikeHuangdineijing (黃帝內徑),Itiscountedthatthereasonoftherepresentingemperoristoshow offits originhaslongandauthoritativehistory. Itseemsthatthepreserved period ofwriting Huangdizhaijing isTang(唐)dynasty, butcounting thatvariousYangzhaishuprevailed,Huangdizhaijing'scontentshasmuch in common with Dunhuangben(敦煌本), and it valued Menfazhidu(門閥制度) of Weijinnanbeichao(魏晉南北朝) dynasty,the many ofthe contents of Huangdizhaijing shouldbe formedbeforeTangdynasty. The exiting editions ofHuangdizhaijing could be divided into generally 8 kinds:① Zhengtongdaocangben(正統道藏本) ②Yimenguangduben(夷門廣牘本) ③Jindaimishuben(津 逮秘書本) ④Shuofuben(說郛本) ⑤Gujintushujichengben(古今圖書集成本) ⑥ Sikuquanshuben(四庫全書本)⑦Xuejintaoyuanben(學津討原本)⑧Dunhuangben(敦煌本)
ThePurposeofthispaperisastudy on thecharacteristicsofCampidogliohillplan byMichelangelo. 1.TheplanoftheCampidogliohilliscomposedoftheharmonizedandunitedspace, in spiteoftheexisting conditionsofa steep flightofland,a irregularsiteshape,a building ofeach otherdifferentdimension and form.Anditisnewly changedby site left through the modification of existing building elevation,utilization of existing buildingfornew planning,connectionwithexistingbuildingandnewlyplannedbuilding from plazacompositionoftrapezoidform. 2.Theconceptofplanning oftheCampidogliohillisplanned by compromising for requirements of Baroque after Renaissance which urban planning characteristics of Baroqueisastherelationwithurbanstreetthroughainclinedstairsandprocesssuch asstreet-approachstairs-plaza-symbolofinsideplaza-building. 3.The section plan ofthe Campidoglio hillis planned by which can be easily approached to theplazathrough theinclined stairsofgentleanglefrom streetatthe centereast-westdirection ofmain axis such asmain axis,utilizing theexisting site shape,anditiscomposed oftheconvex shapeascending gently atthecentercentral partoftheplaza. 4.The plan ofthe Campidoglio hillis composed ofthe elation with the axis of existing Senatorio palace,building planning ofperfectbalance,plaza composition of reversedtrapezoidform bybuildingplanning,centralconcentratedplanningofbuildings surroundingplaza. 5.ThethreepalaceoftheplanoftheCampidogliohilliscomposedoftheconceptas theaterwhichthestagebackgroundformsthefrontelevationofSenatoriopalacehigher two palace and the wings of either side of stage form the front elevation of Conservatoripalaceand Nuovopalace,surrounding threepalaceelevation around plaza oftrapezoidform.
Thisstudy aimstodiscoverhistoricaltrendsandchangeofform ofallstupasin India with observation of field study thatis as directas possible,by classifying, analyzing, andsynthesizing thestupas.Study ofIndianstupainKoreahasanumber ofshortcomings since only introductory partialapproach has been made in orderto seek the origin ofKorean pagoda.This study also aims to correcterrors ofstupa terminology in Chinese character committed by misinterpretation of Hindilanguage whichwasestablishedbyprecedentJapanesescholarsseveraldecadesago. Piled-up stupasweretotally destroyed by pagans,thereforetheirremainstellus only ofstructure,material,sizeand disposition.Howeverremains ofcarved stone at torana and drum give us clues as to the originalform ofstupa and worshipping activity,aswellaschangetoamoreluxuriousform. Many rock cavestupasofIndiashow usboth simpleformsmatching theascetic age ofearly Buddhism and luxurious changes in Mahayanan era introducing us to statuesofBuddha.Indiansrecoveredthesphericform of'anda,'aHinditerm meaning cosmic egg,from the hemispheric form ofthe piled-up stupa. Therefore we might discardtheerraticterm of'bokbal',whichmeansanupsetvessel. Railingsandparasolsbecamemainfactorsofstupadesign.Carvedrailingsaround stupabecameasignofdivinity.Seriousworshippingactivitymadedrumslongorhigh and created multi-embossed stripes.Bases ofcircular drums of some cave stupas changedtheirshapestorectangularoroctagonal.Singleparasolsbecamemultiparasols ofaffluentflowerlike curved stems on carved stupa.Multistoried,elongated and high parasolsofGandharastupasareclosely related tosuch factorsasdiversechangesof form in Indian subcontinent.Four-sided toranagateand ayakacolumn ofthecircular form oforiginalstupassuggesttherectangularform ofsubsequentEastAsianpagoda, and higher and wider base of Indian stupas became the origin of East Asian rectangularpagoda.
This thesis aims to analyze the architectural form for the restoration of noogak(樓閣), Boje-roo(普濟樓) which was constructed at the central court of Beomeo-sa(梵魚寺). The results are as follow; 1. Boje-roo was established in 1700. By the constructional records and poetic essays of the times, the architectural form of the establishment building was consisted of two stories structure. The passage system for the approach to the inner court was the nuha-jinip(樓下進入), that is to say, one might walk between the columns of lower story of the building. And one could ascend the upper stairs and approach to the upper level, inner court. 2. By the remodelling in 1812, the building was varied to one story structure. Therefore the passage system for the approach to the inner court transformed from the nuha-jinip to the ugak-jinip(隅角進入), that is to say, one might ascend the stairs of the podium and could approach the inner court through the both sides of the building. 3. Under the Japanese imperialistic rule, the structure of it's roof and walls of Boje-roo were altered to the Japanese style. In 1965, the wooden columns were shifted to the concreted column, and the wooden wall-panels were shifted to the brick wall attached stone slates. 4. Conclusively speaking, for the restoration of Boje-roo, the establishment form in 1700 is the more proper than the remodelling form in 1812.