This study primarily aims to illuminate the characteristics of Meoreum in Korean traditional fitting system according to the respective types and its periodical changes. Using the research findings as a chronological indicator by which to estimate the construction date of the building is the secondary purpose. In this study 42 of Byeoldang and pavilion architecture remaining in Yeongnam district were examined through the field surveys and methods of documentary research. The research results are as follows. First, Meoreum, which is located below the windows or doors, provides protection against the outer wind and has the function to prevent some warm air of the room from flowing outside. Second, Meoreum was recorded as Yoeum(了音), Woneum(遠音), and Maleum(末音) in Yeong-geon-ui-gwe (營建儀軌) of Joseon period. While Yoeum(了 音) was used in Yeong-geon-ui-gwe (營建儀軌) of 1776 and 1856, Woneum(遠音) had been also used continuously since the year of 1800. The word, Maleum(末音) can be seen in Lim-won-gyeong-je-ji (林園經濟志), published in 1827. Woneum(遠音) and Maleum(末音) seem to be the Yi-du(吏讀) types of expression of Meoreum which is being extensively used now. Third, the kinds of Meoreum can be classified as TohMeoreum, TongMeoreum, TongpanMeoreum, and J janeunMeoreum. TongMeoreum and TohMeoreum were mostly used at the front part of Ondol-rooms, the backside of main floor called Daechung(大廳), and at the space between Daechung and rooms in the Pavilions and Byeoldangs(Annexes) that had been built in the early Joseon dynasty. TohMeoreum was usually used at the bottom parts of windows between Daechung and Ondol-rooms. TongpanMeoreum was mainly used in the mid-Joseon period and relatively high height was the distinctive feature of Meoreum at that time. J janeun Meoreum, used mainly in the late Joseon dynasty, has become lower and lower gradually in height since 19th century, so people could enter the room through the windows(fittings). Such changes in Meoreums types has brought about the flow of human traffic directly from Toenmaru, narrow wooden porch running along the outside of a room to Ondol-rooms.
France is known to be making particular efforts to maintain its traditional urban architectural culture by diverse measures including the implementation of urban policies. However, France is facing up to the need to pursue modern urbanization in keeping with the requirements of the current times. Thus, this paper examines with what priority France is attempting to reflect in its current urban policies its determination to retain its urban architectural tradition and to recreate its capital city of Paris as a future European hub city. To that end, the paper first seeks to analyze Paris' policies for urban architecture from diachronic perspectives in a bid to determine Paris' urban architectural culture. Second, the study attempts to examine within the purview of the paradigm of contemporary urban architectural designs how Paris is pursuing the two conflicting purposes of the preservation of tradition and modern urbanization through the Paris Local Urbanization Plan (or Plan Local d'Urbanisme [PLU]). First, the findings indicate that Paris is applying the principle of a sustainable development plan in all fields of environment, economy and society. In terms of environmental sustainability, Paris is trying to improve the life quality of its citizens through the establishment of efficient mass transportation systems and the expansion of its green belt areas. In terms of social sustainability, Paris is implementing policies to ensure social diversity through housing policies. Also, in terms of economic sustainability, Paris is trying to expand employment and bolster its urban functions by conserving commercial activities and developing peripheral urban areas. Second, the findings indicate that Paris' policy of recovering its traditions takes priority over that of creating a sustainable city.
The Bunhuangsa stone pagoda, constructed in AD. 634, National Treasure no. 30, has been named as 'brick-copied pagoda' since the Japanese-ruling period by scholars. It is said that the Chinese brick pagoda was its precedent model, however the Bunhuangsa Pagoda is the oldest of all the Chinese-style brick pagodas except one, the Sungaksa Pagoda. The Chinese pagoda cannot have been a precedent model to copy due to its complex detail of wood vestige, as the Bunhuangsa pagoda is simple form without ornament. Domestic brick pagodas cannot have been a precedent model to copy as well, because all the domestic brick pagodas are younger than the Bunhuangsa Pagoda. Therefore, the terminology 'brick-copied pagoda' is a fallacy; it is rather that later brick pagoda copied the precedent the Bunhuangsa stone pagoda. The Bunhuangsa Pagoda is simply a piled-up pagoda of thick or thin, big or small slates of stone, facing only one smooth side and therefore needing nothing to relate to brick. The originality of the pagoda is more related to simple piled-up Indian stone stupa rather than Chinese brick pagoda. The roof form of its gradually stepped projection comes from the harmika of the summit of Indian stupa. Contrary to general history, old Silla Dynasty imported Buddhism directly from India by sea. From written national history and by temple foundation history, the Indian Buddhism evangelist possibly made influence to the erecting of temple and pagoda. The original wrong terminology has made a harmful effect gradually to the naming of mass-styled stone pagoda of only carved stepped-roof form after brick-copied pagoda. The false term 'brick-copied pagoda' should be discarded, which comes with superficial observation based on toadyism to China and colonialism to Japan. Instead of the fallacious term, this paper suggests multi-storied ‘piled-up pagoda with slate stone.'
This paper aimed at analyzing of structural carpentry terminology for bracket structure in Yingzaofashi《營造法式》in the era of Song Dynasty and illuminating coinage characteristics and method of Structural Carpentry Terminology for bracket Structure through graphonomy research and system and structure of these terms. The results are as follow. The structural carpentry terminologies for structure were identified to be approximately 23 words, and terminology of bracket structure鋪作is largely categorized into 3 categories of Type鋪作次序, Structure, Place. On the other hand, the structural carpentry terminologies for parts largely categorized into 2 categories of Bracket structure鋪作, Others. Bracket structure terminologies for parts were derived from the core of Dou枓, Gong栱, Ang昂, Fang方. The phenomena of derivation in structural carpentry terminology for bracket structure can be explained by the difference in the shape of subsidiary material and the location for usage of the subsidiary material and part of the subsidiary material and their functions.