The results of analyzing opening types in the rear elevations of ninety-six buddhist temples which would be existence can be summarized as follows ; 1) Opening types in the rear elevations of buddhist temples in the Koryo Dynasty were various as the type of doors and windows, and the type of combining with walls. but the fact had something in common that whole door was the swinging pannel one, and the type of the whole window was the lattice and the mullioned casement one. 2) The type of the lattice windows were disappered and the only type of the mullioned casement windows were put in an apperance in the early period of Cho-sun Dynasty. 3) The type of doors + walls and the type of doors + windows in the rear elevations of buddhist temples of the seventeenth century were absolute. Especially the mullioned casement windows were used mainly in buddhist temple of the type of doors + windows. 4) The type of doors + windows in the rear elevations of buddhist temples of the eighteenth century did not be seen, but types of doors + walls and walls + walls which were much enclosed, were mainly put to use in those.
The purpose of this thesis is a searching out the characteristics of Japanese dwellings implanted into Korea in the time of the rule of Japanese imperialism and its influences on Korean modern dwellings especially in the time of 1930's. At the early stage of the colonial time(1905~1919), the central corridor type Japanese dwellings were implanted into Korea for the Japanese official residences. The central corridor type Japanese dwelling was an urban modern dwelling compromised between Japanese style and western style and distinguished by an outer-court type plan, Japanese entrance hall, central corridor and western style reception room. After the 1920's the central corridor type Japanese dwellings have spreaded itself and became a prototype of a modern dwelling in Korea. The characteristics of the central corridor type Japanese dwellings have influenced on the Korean high class dwellings and Korean architects' proposals for modern dwelling in the time of 1930's. By the implantation and spread of the central corridor type Japanese dwellings, Korean modern dwellings at the same time have affected and undergone transformation. The aspects of transformation were ; The outbreaking of the Japanese style entrance and central corridor, the transformation of MaDang from the inner court with a function of circulation into the outer court garden with plants and the transformation of Korean dwellings from the rural inner court type into the urban outer court type. The central corridor type Japanese dwellings implanted into Korea in the time of the rule of Japanese imperialism makes function as a precedent of a modern urban dwelling to Korean and makes Korean dwellings transform from the rural inner court type into the urban outer court type.
The language of architecture is a kind of tool which helps people to experience the environment not as the thing itself but as a meaningful one. It, gathered by place, constitutes 'genius loci', as the existential structures. It, in other words, gives a thing 'cognitive quality', and serve people to 'dwell' because 'a place is a gathering thing with concrete presence.' Our environment, only when it possesses the language, presents itself as a namable thing or an understood world. Such a meaningful identification is dwelling. The modern world is a complex melting-pot. It is 'complexities' and 'contradiction'. The language of architecture is never created, rather it is selected by needs of the time and the place. In this sense, architectural design means discovery and interpretation of the poetic order of architypal form and style, and the poetic order is a way for people to dwell in the humanistic sense. These reminds me of Martin Heidegger's statement : 'Architecture belongs to poetry, and its purpose is to help man to dwell.'
The Hwasong City Wall was built for three years(1794-1796), but the real construction term was taken only 28 months. The wall and the buildings on the wall were built simultaneously, and the esttimated construction cost was highly restricted. These conditions were main factors for considering the high efficiency of construction productivity. This study examines these factors that are reflected in the operating system of the architectural standard scale of length, the architectural composition system in the Hwasong City Wall to reduce the construction cost. Through the study, following factors are found. 1.The rule of multiple proportion is found in the relationship between the partition distance, that is, span and the height of the girder which is related to the productivity of ready-made building members. 2.The ruling grade system of scale in the component members is found in the chang-bang(창방, penetration members)